Christine E. Hallett

Part III Volunteer girls Tens of thousands of women prepared themselves for war service as nurses in the years leading up to the First World War. A minority of these were fully trained. Others attached themselves to VADs, undertook short courses in sick-nursing, bandaging, invalid cookery, and hygiene, and held themselves in readiness for war. Still others came forward at the outbreak of war with no training at all, and began developing their skills in the heat and stress of the wartime emergency. Anne Summers has shown that British and Dominion women had been

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Sacralisation and militarisation in the remembrance of the ‘cursed soldiers’
Marije Hristova and Monika Żychlińska

Between 2012 and 2017, at the Ł-section of Warsaw’s Powązki Military Cemetery, or ‘Łączka’, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance exhumed a mass grave containing the remains of post-war anti-communist resistance fighters. Being referred to as the ‘cursed soldiers’, these fighters have become key figures in post-2015 Polish memory politics. In this article we focus on the role of the volunteers at these exhumations in the production of the ‘cursed soldiers’ memory. Following the idea of community archaeology as a civil society-building practice, the observed processes of sacralisation and militarisation show how the exhumations create a community of memory that promotes the core values of the currently governing national-conservative PiS party. We found that tropes related to forensic research and typically identified with cosmopolitan memory paradigms are used within a generally nationalist and antagonistic memory framework.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

technology. Some of these displays were sent to world expositions in Vienna (1873), Paris (1878), and Brussels (1897) ( Hutchinson, 1996 : 165f). A full Red Cross museum was only realized by the end of World War I – in the United States. Many American Red Cross volunteers had collected significant symbolic gifts during their work in Europe. At the same time, American Red Cross president Henry Davison, teaming up with Broadway actress Eleanor Robson Belmont, looked for a place ‘to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Rainer Schlösser, Spokesperson of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rotkreuz-Museen)
Sönke Kunkel

in 2021, where Red Cross museums have been asked to stage an anniversary exhibit. SK: How do you explain this change? RS: I think German Red Cross organizations have really begun to see that doing history is not something old-fashioned and backward, but carries real value for building motivation and identification on the part of Red Cross volunteers. It gives our work a broader meaning. For a normal Red Cross volunteer, when she or he sees a historical object within a museum or holds it in his hands, this can really make a difference in fostering commitment

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Four Conversations with Canadian Communications Officers
Dominique Marshall

volunteers, to the rescue of archives in danger, the preparation of exhibits and documentary films, the celebration of anniversaries, the writing of policy briefs, the visit of humanitarians in university courses, and the visit of historians to humanitarian conferences. For professional historians of aid and development, such joint ventures provide a unique way to find and create documents required to understand the actions and the words of as many of those involved as possible, in as many contexts as possible. The five media specialists encountered in December 2020 for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Burying the victims of Europe’s border in a Tunisian coastal town
Valentina Zagaria

The Mediterranean Sea has recently become the deadliest of borders for illegalised travellers. The victims of the European Union’s liquid border are also found near North African shores. The question of how and where to bury these unknown persons has recently come to the fore in Zarzis, a coastal town in south-east Tunisia. Everyone involved in these burials – the coastguards, doctors, Red Crescent volunteers, municipality employees – agree that what they are doing is ‘wrong’. It is neither dignified nor respectful to the dead, as the land used as a cemetery is an old waste dump, and customary attitudes towards the dead are difficult to realise. This article will first trace how this situation developed, despite the psychological discomfort of all those affected. It will then explore how the work of care and dignity emerges within this institutional chain, and what this may tell us about what constitutes the concept of the human.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Fabrice Weissman

explain their operational decisions. In MSF’s case, for example, discussing the circumstances surrounding its volunteers’ kidnapping by the IS in 2014 would have enabled the organisation to explain why it refused to work in the areas under the group’s control. Due to the lack of any explanation, this refusal was interpreted as evidence of MSF’s political alignment with those fighting the IS. Humanitarian organisations cannot hope to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

Somalia, while the looting of humanitarian convoys by armed men on the main roads made regular aid delivery to the IDP (internally displaced person) camps difficult. Was armed protection necessary to ensure access to vulnerable populations? Five years later, in 1997, three MdM-Spain volunteers were killed and a fourth wounded in a targeted attack in Ruhengeri, Northern Rwanda. In Chechnya and the former Yugoslavia, NGO personnel were being kidnapped or targeted. Those incidents made

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arjun Claire

new language of sans frontières humanitarianism of the 1970s. In the initial days, the témoin was almost invariably the humanitarian volunteer. During the 1970s, témoignage came to be a symbol of a new form of humanitarian action – solidarist and political. Lacking direct translation in English, it proved to be adept at accommodating changing conceptions of humanitarianism within MSF. From a focus on human rights in its early years to a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

et al. , 2010 : 15). Language and translation were important components of these ICT applications, and for relief efforts more broadly, since most international responders did not speak Creole or French. Thousands of Creole- and French-speaking volunteers – predominantly Haitian nationals and members of the Haitian diaspora – translated incoming SMS messages and telephone calls, which were then relayed to groups on the ground providing assistance and integrated into

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs