Christine E. Hallett

Part III Volunteer girls Tens of thousands of women prepared themselves for war service as nurses in the years leading up to the First World War. A minority of these were fully trained. Others attached themselves to VADs, undertook short courses in sick-nursing, bandaging, invalid cookery, and hygiene, and held themselves in readiness for war. Still others came forward at the outbreak of war with no training at all, and began developing their skills in the heat and stress of the wartime emergency. Anne Summers has shown that British and Dominion women had been

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Sacralisation and militarisation in the remembrance of the ‘cursed soldiers’
Marije Hristova and Monika Żychlińska

Between 2012 and 2017, at the Ł-section of Warsaw’s Powązki Military Cemetery, or ‘Łączka’, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance exhumed a mass grave containing the remains of post-war anti-communist resistance fighters. Being referred to as the ‘cursed soldiers’, these fighters have become key figures in post-2015 Polish memory politics. In this article we focus on the role of the volunteers at these exhumations in the production of the ‘cursed soldiers’ memory. Following the idea of community archaeology as a civil society-building practice, the observed processes of sacralisation and militarisation show how the exhumations create a community of memory that promotes the core values of the currently governing national-conservative PiS party. We found that tropes related to forensic research and typically identified with cosmopolitan memory paradigms are used within a generally nationalist and antagonistic memory framework.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Burying the victims of Europe’s border in a Tunisian coastal town
Valentina Zagaria

The Mediterranean Sea has recently become the deadliest of borders for illegalised travellers. The victims of the European Union’s liquid border are also found near North African shores. The question of how and where to bury these unknown persons has recently come to the fore in Zarzis, a coastal town in south-east Tunisia. Everyone involved in these burials – the coastguards, doctors, Red Crescent volunteers, municipality employees – agree that what they are doing is ‘wrong’. It is neither dignified nor respectful to the dead, as the land used as a cemetery is an old waste dump, and customary attitudes towards the dead are difficult to realise. This article will first trace how this situation developed, despite the psychological discomfort of all those affected. It will then explore how the work of care and dignity emerges within this institutional chain, and what this may tell us about what constitutes the concept of the human.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Fabrice Weissman

explain their operational decisions. In MSF’s case, for example, discussing the circumstances surrounding its volunteers’ kidnapping by the IS in 2014 would have enabled the organisation to explain why it refused to work in the areas under the group’s control. Due to the lack of any explanation, this refusal was interpreted as evidence of MSF’s political alignment with those fighting the IS. Humanitarian organisations cannot hope to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

Somalia, while the looting of humanitarian convoys by armed men on the main roads made regular aid delivery to the IDP (internally displaced person) camps difficult. Was armed protection necessary to ensure access to vulnerable populations? Five years later, in 1997, three MdM-Spain volunteers were killed and a fourth wounded in a targeted attack in Ruhengeri, Northern Rwanda. In Chechnya and the former Yugoslavia, NGO personnel were being kidnapped or targeted. Those incidents made

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

et al. , 2010 : 15). Language and translation were important components of these ICT applications, and for relief efforts more broadly, since most international responders did not speak Creole or French. Thousands of Creole- and French-speaking volunteers – predominantly Haitian nationals and members of the Haitian diaspora – translated incoming SMS messages and telephone calls, which were then relayed to groups on the ground providing assistance and integrated into

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

fades as local capacity increases. We’re not there yet. But it’s another conceptual thing that the aid industry is looking for something to do and place itself in, when, in fact, it shouldn’t be about that. It should be responding to a clearly identified need. For instance, we get people who want to volunteer with us and they so want to be deployed; but we say you might not always be needed. This might be difficult for them to hear because they just want to go. When I was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

project in Damascus (Al-Zahera hospital). MSF thus formed an international team of five volunteers from countries designated as emerging by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). The project never saw the light of day, as the volunteers were unable to obtain a visa. The Russian Option The first approach to Russia was made in March 2012. In a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

the professional spheres. If all social interaction is performative, we all play multiple and overlapping roles, and few follow the same social script at work as when they are with their friends ( Goffman, 1978 ). In MSF however, this is particularly exaggerated: MSF imagines volunteers to be ‘unencumbered by social obligations at home’, similarly acquiring ‘few in the field’ ( Redfield, 2012 : 362). For many Congolese staff, this is a particularly complex endeavour: some are members of the communities in which they live and work, embedded in political and social

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

do not correspond to those of humanitarianism. Humanitarian action has historically faced opposition to the ideas it sought to promote. For instance, in 1863, French authorities opposed the idea of an independent body of volunteers to assist the wounded during conflict ( Hutchinson, 1996 : 32–3). The principle of protection of civilians, core to today’s humanitarian action, is still challenged by ‘sizeable minorities’ who continue

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs