Open Access (free)
Ford Madox Ford, the novel and the Great War
Author: Sara Haslam

This book is about Ford Madox Ford, a hero of the modernist literary revolution. Ford is a fascinating and fundamental figure of the time; not only because, as a friend and critic of Ezra Pound and Joseph Conrad, editor of the English Review and author of The Good Soldier, he shaped the development of literary modernism. But, as the grandson of Ford Madox Brown and son of a German music critic, he also manifested formative links with mainland European culture and the visual arts. In Ford there is the chance to explore continuity in artistic life at the turn of the last century, as well as the more commonly identified pattern of crisis in the time. The argument throughout the book is that modernism possesses more than one face. Setting Ford in his cultural and historical context, the opening chapter debates the concept of fragmentation in modernism; later chapters discuss the notion of the personal narrative, and war writing. Ford's literary technique is studied comparatively and plot summaries of his major books (The Good Soldier and Parade's End) are provided, as is a brief biography.

The First World War was the first ‘total war’. Its industrial weaponry damaged millions of men, and drove whole armies underground into dangerously unhealthy trenches. Many were killed. Others suffered from massive, life-threatening injuries; wound infections such as gas gangrene and tetanus; exposure to extremes of temperature; emotional trauma; and systemic disease. Tens of thousands of women volunteered to serve as nurses to alleviate their suffering. Some were fully-trained professionals; others had minimal preparation, and served as volunteer-nurses. Their motivations were a combination of compassion, patriotism, professional pride and a desire for engagement in the ‘great enterprise’ of war. The war led to an outpouring of war-memoirs, produced mostly by soldier-writers whose works came to be seen as a ‘literary canon’ of war-writing. But nurses had offered immediate and long-term care, life-saving expertise, and comfort to the war’s wounded, and their experiences had given them a perspective on industrial warfare which was unique. Until recently, their contributions, both to the saving of lives and to our understanding of warfare have remained largely hidden from view. ‘Nurse Writers of the Great War’ examines these nurses’ memoirs and explores the insights they offer into the nature of nursing and the impact of warfare. The book combines close biographical research with textual analysis, in order to offer an understanding of both nurses’ wartime experiences and the ways in which their lives and backgrounds contributed to the style and content of their writing.

Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

apparent contradiction (which applied in some, but not all, cases). He correctly asserts that some attitudes crushed under the weight of an ‘anti-war’ label could be ‘ambivalent if not actually supportive’ towards the conflict.17 One such attitude, which Brian Bond examines, is that of Siegfried Sassoon, mentioned at the start of this Introduction. Though Bond identifies Sassoon’s high concerns with unit pride and comradeship, he simplifies Sassoon’s spectrum of response in suggesting that his anti-war writing merely refers to an ‘antagonism and mutual lack of empathy

in A war of individuals
Christine E. Hallett

episode as if it were part of an adventure story is striking, and is typical of this genre of war writing.18 Following the German occupation, Millicent and her party were escorted on foot to Brussels – a long and difficult journey; but Millicent claims to have shrugged it off as no further than she might walk ‘in a day’s golfing’. From Brussels they returned home by car and boat via Rotterdam.19 32 Heroines in Belgium and Serbia By 23 October, Millicent was back on the Continent. The ‘Millicent Sutherland Ambulance Car Convoy’ landed in Dunkirk and established a 100

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

, p. 200). This is because speech isn’t fluent or coherent, but truncated and fragmented. 16 Refer to Chapter 1 for accounts of Ford’s experience of mental illness, and of his opinions of the professionals associated with this field. 17 See Allyson Booth’s discussion of Wallace Stevens’s use of ellipsis in his war writing to suggest ‘the radical potential of words to register war’s dislocations’ (Postcards from the Trenches, pp. 15–16); see also Cornelia Cook’s discussion of Last Post, which includes some assessment of the modernist degeneration of linguistic codes

in Fragmenting modernism
Rhiannon Vickers

. Morgan and A. J. P. Taylor note that its leader, Keir Hardie, took an independent line on social questions from the moment he entered parliament in 1892, ‘But he kept quiet about foreign affairs until driven to explosion by the Boer war’. This was ‘lest he compromise his essential commitment to the cause of labour at home’.7 Despite this, the ILP was influential over issues of foreign policy in the early years through the role played by its leaders Keir Hardie and Ramsey MacDonald. MacDonald visited South Africa in 1902 shortly after the end of the Boer War, writing of

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Christine E. Hallett

the progressive Lillian Wald.6 She was a member of the New  York Women’s Trade Union League, and had been instrumental in setting up the American Nurses Association.7 Dock’s openly anti-war writing has an important place among the works of female pacifists such as Catherine Marshall in Britain, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman in the USA, who deliberately linked pacifism to feminism by suggesting that war would be less likely in a world where women wielded political power.8 Open pacifism was, however, rare among nurses:  most nurse writers contented themselves with

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

example of the type of female war writing that emerged in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Works by men such as Erich Maria Remarque (All Quiet on the Western Front), Henri Barbusse (Le Feu), Robert Graves (Goodbye to All That), and Edmund Blunden (Undertones of War) had sought to find a language that would enable those who had fought to make sense of their experience – an experience that could never be shared by those who had remained at home. But a handful of women began to offer their own perspectives at around the same time.70 Published in 1932, a year before Vera

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

-war theorists, pre-war ‘personal liberty’ to (in terms which resonate with those of Taylor) post-war restriction. He even writes of pre-war sanity that opposed a form of post-war general madness amongst those who had ‘taken physical part in the war’.49 Chapter 4 of this book, ‘In sight of war’, is concerned with this understanding of the war, and with Ford’s war writing, as well as that of others. It begins with a discussion of the linguistic fragmentation that war engendered. ‘Large words’ have gone,50 as has the understanding of, and reliance upon, what they meant – a

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Linda Maynard

’ wartime experiences play a prominent role, as emblematic. By presenting his ‘story’ this way, he rendered his high-achieving, atypical family unremarkable: sharing the poignancy of loss that was common to so many families and communities. Examining the intimate ways in which siblings ‘kept’ the memory of brothers contributes to our understanding of how the war is remembered. 3 Revealing and recording love is one of the vital functions of war writing, states Kate McLoughlin. 4 Often these memories remained hidden from view, recorded in private letters and diaries

in Brothers in the Great War