Roberta Bivins

’. 10 At the same time, the NHS and parallel social legislation represented a direct experimental intervention in polarising debates between the USA and its European allies about whether investment in welfare or in warfare would more effectively contain the spread of communism. 11 If for Britain, welfare provision was both a sign of national prestige and a powerful weapon against communist ideology, for the USA – initially bankrolling both reconstruction and re-armament across Western Europe – it drained scarce

in Posters, protests, and prescriptions
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez
and
Ammar Sabouni

international warfare norms ( WHO, 2018 ; ICRC, 2017 ). Moreover, some researchers consider Syria to be the most dangerous place on earth for medical workers in what has been termed to be a ‘weaponisation of health care’ ( Fouad et al. , 2017 ). In 2011, violence against healthcare was taking forms of attacks on health personnel, such as kidnapping, torture and detention, and blocking access to healthcare through deprivation of medical supplies and detention of patients seeking healthcare. Health personnel subjected to this violence were mostly those who were involved in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

, but then in Room 5 once again found ‘photocopies of still more letters and extracts’, this time from the ICRC archives ( Lossier, 1962 ). What the museum did not show were the more controversial aspects of early Red Cross history: the movement’s entanglements with the militant nationalisms of the time, its auxiliary role in making mass warfare acceptable, the bitter infighting within the International Committee. Further adding to the museum’s troubles, by the late 1960s

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar
,
Benjamin J. Spatz
,
Alex de Waal
,
Christopher Newton
, and
Daniel Maxwell

or as an element in a crime against humanity – can be utilised by political authorities to achieve multiple objectives ( Conley and de Waal, 2019 ). These include: mass killing; reducing the capacity of a group to mount resistance; punishment; a means of seizing territorial control (for instance, through siege warfare as in Yemen and Syria); flushing out a population into areas controlled by the perpetrators (in Nigeria, making aid available only in garrison towns

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
Michelle Lokot
,
Lisa DiPangrazio
,
Dorcas Acen
,
Veronica Gatpan
, and
Ronald Apunyo

://girlseducationsouthsudan.org (accessed 8 November 2021 ). Glinski , A. , Schwenke , C. , O’Brien-Milne , L. and Farley , K. ( 2018 ), Gender Equity and Male Engagement: It Only Works When Everyone Plays ( Washington, DC : International Center for Research on Women ), www.icrw.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/ICRW_Gender-Equity-and-Male-Engagement_Full-report.pdf (accessed 10 September 2020 ). Glowacki , L. and Wrangham , R. ( 2015 ), ‘ Warfare and Reproductive Success in a Tribal Population ’, Proceedings of the National Academy of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy
and
Victoria Russell

political propaganda, conspiracy theories, disinformation campaigns and hybrid warfare. This case of the MV Aquarius highlights the increasingly dangerous environment that humanitarians are now operating in in the early twenty-first century: meaning not the Mediterranean, but the emerging information space. If humanitarian organisations do not ready themselves for this space, they will find themselves in a world turned upside-down, in which their principles have no meaning

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

. London : Hurst . Niland , N. ( 2014 ), ‘ Sri Lanka: Unrestricted Warfare and Limited Humanitarian Action ’, International Development Policy . doi: 10.4000/poldev.1680 . Norwegian Refugee Council ( 2016 ), NRC Considerations for Planning Mass Evacuations of Civilians in Conflict Settings

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

( Vienna : Commissioner of the Austrian Pavillon ). Duffield , M. ( 2015 ), ‘ The Digital Development–Security Nexus: Linking Cyber-Humanitarianism and Drone Warfare ’ in Jackson , P. (ed.), Handbook of International Security and Development ( Cheltenham : Edward

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

Origins of Humanitarianism, 1918–1924 (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare) ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ). de Laat , S. ( 2019 ), [‘Seeing Refugees’]‘Using Old Photographs to Gain New Perspectives on Refugees, Past and Present’ , in Ross , D. (ed.), Confronting Canadian Migration History , https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-9UUcbORUmrxOG4dUr1yj5p2CMKBL98e/view (accessed 8 September 2021 ). Doherty , J. and International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House ( 1978

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.