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Sex, family planning and British female doctors in transnational perspective, 1920–70

Women’s medicine explores the key role played by British female doctors in the production and circulation of contraceptive knowledge and the handling of sexual disorders between the 1920s and 1970s at the transnational level, taking France as a point of comparison. This study follows the path of a set of women doctors as they made their way through the predominantly male-dominated medical landscape in establishing birth control and family planning as legitimate fields of medicine. This journey encompasses their practical engagement with birth control and later family planning clinics in Britain, their participation in the development of the international movement of birth control and family planning and their influence on French doctors. Drawing on a wide range of archived and published medical materials, this study sheds light on the strategies British female doctors used, and the alliances they made, to put forward their medical agenda and position themselves as experts and leaders in birth control and family planning research and practice.


The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

State-based institutions to advocate for gender equality
Anne Marie Goetz

3 National women’s machinery: state-based institutions to advocate for gender equality1 anne marie goetz Introduction This chapter considers the effectiveness of National women’s machineries (NWMs), examining their record of promoting women’s interests in five countries: Bangladesh, Chile, Jamaica, Morocco and Vietnam.2 These countries are each at different stages of integrating gender into development processes. They also differ in their degree of economic development, their political histories and the nature of their main economic constraints. What they have

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Structures and spaces
Nüket Kardam
Selma Acuner

96 COMPARATIVE ANALYSES 4 National women’s machineries: structures and spaces nüket kardam and selma acuner Introduction This chapter will focus on the ‘lessons learned’ by national machineries in mainstreaming gender issues, drawing from our experience of the Turkish national women’s machinery (NWM) as well as other published case studies. As we enter the twenty-first century, we have seen a number of institutional changes for gender equality. National machineries have been established, restructured, streamlined and upgraded in an effort to promote gender

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Open Access (free)
Pacifist feminism in the IAPA
Heloise Brown

‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 8 Awakening women: pacifist feminism in the IAPA T he IAPA had a women’s auxiliary almost from the date it was founded, as between 1881 and 1882 a number of women in the Peace Society’s Auxiliary attempted to formally attach their organisation to the IAPA. When matters reached a head in April 1882, the Auxiliary split, with one organisation – the Women’s Peace and Arbitration Auxiliary (WPAA) – attaching itself to the IAPA, the other reconstituting itself and remaining with the Peace Society. The social purity politics and

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Open Access (free)
Female theatre workers and professional practice

Stage women, 1900–50 explores the many ways in which women conceptualised, constructed and participated in networks of professional practice in the theatre and performance industries between 1900 and 1950. A timely volume full of original research, the book explores women’s complex negotiations of their agency over both their labour and public representation, and their use of personal and professional networks to sustain their careers. Including a series of case studies that explore a range of well-known and lesser-known women working in theatre, film and popular performance of the period. The volume is divided into two connected parts. ‘Female theatre workers in the social and theatrical realm’ looks at the relationship between women’s work – on- and offstage – and autobiography, activism, technique, touring, education and the law. Part II, ‘Women and popular performance’, focuses on the careers of individual artists, once household names, including Lily Brayton, Ellen Terry, radio star Mabel Constanduros, and Oscar-winning film star Margaret Rutherford. Overall, the book provides new and vibrant cultural histories of women’s work in the theatre and performance industries of the period.

New writers, new literatures in the 1990s
Editors: and

The 1990s witnessed an explosion in women's writing in France, with a particularly exciting new generation of writer's coming to the fore, such as Christine Angot, Marie Darrieussecq and Regine Detambel. This book introduces an analysis of new women's writing in contemporary France, including both new writers of the 1990s and their more established counter-parts. The 1990s was an exciting period for women's writing in France. The novels of Louise Lambrichs are brilliant but troubling psychological dramas focusing on the traumas that inhabit the family romance: incest, sterility, the death those we love and the terrible legacy of mourning. The body of writing produced by Marie Redonnet between 1985 and 2000 is an unusually coherent one. The book explores the possibility of writing 'de la mélancolie' through focusing on the work of Chantal Chawaf, whose writing may be described as 'melancholic autofiction', melancholic autobiographical fiction. It places Confidence pour confidence within Constant's oeuvre as a whole, and argues for a more positive reading of the novel, a reading that throws light on the trajectory of mother-daughter relations in her fiction. Christiane Baroche was acclaimed in France first as a short-story writer. Unable to experience the freedom of their brothers and fathers, beur female protagonists are shown to experience it vicariously through the reading, and the writing of, narratives. Clotilde Escalle's private worlds of sex and violence, whose transgressions are part of real lives, shock precisely because they are brought into the public sphere, expressed in and through writing.

Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Issues concerning women Issues concerning women 97 7 ➤ The development of the women’s movement ➤ Descriptions of the legislation passed to improve the status of women ➤ Review and analysis of remaining issues concerning the status of women BACKGROUND Women’s emancipation Although the cause of improvement in the status of women can be traced back into the nineteenth century, the effective story must begin with the time when women achieved the right to vote after a sustained campaign of civil disobedience and parliamentary campaigning. Women over 30 years old

in Understanding British and European political issues
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Steven Fielding

5 Appealing to women Some months before the 1959 general election, Labour’s keenest women activists were told by one of their leading lights that they needed to accommodate ‘a new generation, with new habits, new interests, and new reactions to the political problems of the day’.1 The result in October appeared to confirm her analysis, as many observers believed a significant cause of Labour’s defeat was its rejection by younger, affluent female voters. If the problem appeared acute in the late 1950s, the party had always found it hard to convince women to vote

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

6 Women and the war The Great War, most people would have agreed at the time, was a male creation. Politicians, statesmen and kings bred it and soldiers fought and fed it. Thus far, this study has regarded those women within Bloomsbury whose aesthetic reactions to the conflict provide such a good starting point when examining the war in this context. What of other women, existing independently from that hot-house of creativity, but who felt similarly? Due to their status in society as a whole, women necessarily operated within a different cultural milieu to

in A war of individuals