The evolution of Labour’s foreign policy, 1900–51

This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.

Rhiannon Vickers

raising hopes for a future based on international socialist solidarity, while quickly undermining this through the provision of a competing socialist world-view, foreign policy and international movement to that provided by the Labour Party. Labour and the war The outbreak of the First World War tested the Labour Party’s attitudes to foreign policy and defence as no previous event had. In particular, it revealed the problems of forming a party out of an alliance of left-wing groups. Until 1914, the Labour Party had proclaimed itself as largely anti-war, and some of it

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
Nils Freytag

magical practitioners from a decree issued by the Prussian Ministry of the Interior on 14 October 1873, which declared ‘the encouragement of superstition’ an offence punishable by a fine of 150 Reichsmark or imprisonment. 12 Prussian medical authorities, and many doctors in their wake, tried to use their medical and scientific world-view to rationalize the irrational and to explain ‘abnormal’ beliefs increasingly in terms of

in Witchcraft Continued
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East
Raymond Hinnebusch

dependency relationships. To many Arabs and Muslims, the struggle with imperialism, far from being mere history, continues, as imperialism reinvents itself in new forms. The Middle East has become the one world region where anti-imperialist nationalism, obsolete elsewhere, remains alive and where an indigenous ideology, Islam, provides a world view still resistant to West-centric globalisation. This dynamic explains much of the international politics of the region. The age of imperialism and the imposition of the Middle East states system

in The international politics of the Middle East
Open Access (free)
Reframing “sensing” and data generation in citizen science for empowering relationships
João Porto de Albuquerque and André Albino de Almeida

This chapter investigates an intrinsic ambivalence in the use of digital technologies by citizen science projects: the often-used “citizen sensor” metaphor can either mean a heightened capacity to perceive and articulate an alternative world view (and thus results in empowerment); or it can connote that the citizen’s capabilities are constrained to capture predefined environmental signals (and thus implies instrumentality). Drawing on Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed alongside some of his later works, a new perspective on citizen sensing is presented that goes beyond epistemological concerns to address the types of relationships established with citizens, that is, their modes of engagement. Instead of obfuscating asymmetries in the relationships between citizens and scientists, it is argued that a Freirean perspective entails considering asymmetries as a constitutive and productive tension within a dialogical process of knowledge co-production. This dialogical approach enables the development of new methods and ethical-methodological criteria for citizen-generated data projects that are effectively able to empower citizens to leverage their realities, world views, and epistemologies – particularly those of marginalized and disadvantaged people and of the “global South.”

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

Chapter 5 investigates the concept and expansion of heritage. It starts with the common claim that “heritage is everywhere” and that there is a “heritage boom”. Statistics reveal that heritage has gradually grown as a phenomenon in the course of the twentieth century, becoming more prominent from the 1970s onwards but still dwarfed by history and memory as concepts. The evolution of two cultures in relation to heritage is presented in detail – the first being what is named canonical heritage, the other calling itself critical heritage. The process of canonisation is discussed, as is the origin of the “heritage” concept at the time of the French Revolution. The background of critical heritage is displayed in the critical theory of the Frankfurt School, whose adherents belong to a large group of people who have been, and are, uncomfortable with modernity. Heritage, however, is not a consequence of a societal crisis; as the author argues, the rise of heritage represents a crisis in the eyes of the critics. By now, the two cultures with their world views are both institutionalised; so if there is an “Authorized Heritage Discourse”, there is also an “Authorized Critical Heritage Discourse”. Attitudes towards heritage are explored in discussions concerning authenticity, vandalism, and relations to modernity. Heritage expansion is related to the general acceleration of change. Finally, the author recommends a look at what a relatively young and more moderate Lowenthal wrote on heritage before “The Past is a Foreign Country” and other critical texts.

in Heritopia
Fern Elsdon-Baker

15 Re-examining ‘creationist’ monsters in the uncharted waters of social studies of science and religion Fern Elsdon-Baker The subject of a clash between scientific and religious world views is often repeated as a very real ‘fact’ in scholarly, policy and public discourse – with creationists being painted as the ultimate unenlightened monsters that threaten scientific, and by extension societal, progress. There is, so we are told, a real and inevitable clash between world views – one that within extreme iterations can only be negotiated by an outright rejection

in Science and the politics of openness
Open Access (free)
Remembering the forgetting in schooling
Lant Pritchett

education. Modern schooling is fundamentally a contest of world views. In ‘the West’, the historical battle of world views between religion and religious belief as a primary organizing principle and the modern secular state has been won so decisively by the forces of the modern it is difficult, if not impossible, to even recreate a non-secular world view. Charles Taylor’s recent book A Secular Age (Taylor 2007) emphasizes that it is impossible even for a religious believer to reconstruct the intellectual and social milieu1 in which religion was the default mode of thought

in History, historians and development policy
Open Access (free)
Rhiannon Vickers

dimension to foreign policy, of membership of an international community and of the need to think of the international interest, are not new. Rather, they reflect a particular world-view that has been prevalent throughout the Labour Party’s history and which is the focus of this study. Foreign policy under ‘New Labour’ has stimulated a renewed interest in the nature of Labour’s approach to the world.3 Not since a proliferation of studies of foreign policy under the Attlee governments has so much been said and written about Labour and international affairs.4 However

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
A cinematic response to pessimism
Davide Panagia

. Let us recall, briefly, the era in which Cavell’s studies on film were written. Though published in 1981, Pursuits of Happiness was composed throughout the 1970s and followed The World Viewed as the only other book that took film seriously as a philosophical topic, written by an American author tenured in a philosophy department at a prominent American university

in Cinema, democracy and perfectionism