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Post-Humanitarianism

Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

Mark Duffield

, from this period, been feebler than the last ( Brenner, 2006 ). Recovery from the 2008 financial crisis, for example, has been the weakest and most prolonged on record ( Streeck, 2017 ). Reflecting the realities of the downturn, the new freedom to consume has, to a remarkable degree, been unequally distributed ( OECD, 2008 ; Oxfam, 2016 ). Precarity is a by-product of the long downturn. It emerges at that historic moment when the economy becomes a site of permanent emergency ( Streeck, 2011 ). A human surplus coexists with the ‘jobless’ growth

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Past Practice into Future Policy

A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector

Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

Approaches to the Re-historicisation of Policy ’, European Journal of Development Research , 21 : 1 , 32 – 46 , doi: 10.1057/ejdr.2008.7 . Médecins Sans Frontières ( 2018 ), Evolution of an International Movement: Associative History, 1971–2014 , 2 volumes, available at http://associativehistory.msf.org/ (accessed 25 July 2018) . Médecins Sans Frontières ( n.d. ), MSF Speaking Out , http://speakingout.msf.org (accessed 25 July 2018) . Miliband , D. ( 2016 ), ‘ The Best Ways to Deal with the Refugee Crisis ’, New York Review of Books , 13 October

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Juliano Fiori

humanitarian agencies, the political currency of liberal humanitarianism and its institutions has steadily waned. In recent years, liberal order has been flagrantly challenged by a visceral and affective politics, produced by globalisation itself. Global income inequality increased significantly with the acceleration of globalisation following the end of the Cold War: from a Gini coefficient of 0.57 to one of 0.72, between 1988 and 2005 ( Anand and Segal, 2014: 968 ). Then, following the 2008 financial crash, capital doubled down. While those most

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José Luís Fiori

. As such, the system should be thought of as a ‘universe in expansion’, in which there never will be ‘perpetual peace’, nor ‘hegemonic utopia’. It is a universe that requires war and crisis to order and ‘stabilise’ – always in a transitory way – and sustain its necessarily hierarchical structures. ( Fiori, 2008 : 29–30) Those analysts who now announce the end of liberal order tend to predict a great confrontation between the Chinese hierarchical system, based on tributary relations, and the Westphalian system, based on national

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Mel Bunce

disinformation and the many forms it can take. It then considers the impact of this disinformation on humanitarian crises, identifying a number of cases where it has caused real harm for those affected by disaster. Even more troubling, perhaps, is the impact it may have on audiences in the long term and their willingness to trust the news media when it provides important information or holds those with power to account. The article finishes by examining the groups that are producing disinformation about humanitarian crisis and asking what can be done

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Lehman Brothers

A Crisis of Value

Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

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Solutions

A Party of the 99% and the Power of Debt

Series:

Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

publicly run banking system can provide for this debt-free, with no premiums required. In other words, everyone is covered by virtue of being a member of the political community. Seventh, a Party of the 99% should fund retirement at a democratically agreed-upon age. Presently, because of the economic insecurity wrought by the 2008 financial crisis and the defunding of pension plans by governments and municipalities bankrupted by debt, retirement is out of reach for many. Consequently, the elderly are forced to continue working longer (see Table 5.1). While many may be

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Oonagh McDonald

’ losses. ‘Losses stemming from the lending activities of banks had a profound effect on all financial institutions in 2007–2008’ and the losses captured in the fair value rules flowed from that. 23 Others have supported the SEC's argument, emphasizing what others may have been unwilling to stress. The crisis started when house prices declined and delinquency and default rates increased. Starting in 2007, declining house prices, defaults by subprime borrowers, foreclosures, cases of mortgage fraud and rating downgrades created

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Oonagh McDonald

in the derivatives market caused disruptions and volatility in derivatives trading. The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) published a detailed report as part of its semi-annual reports tracking derivatives market data. The report for the second half of 2008 states that the financial crisis in the second half of 2008 resulted in the first ever decline in the total notional amounts of OTC derivatives since data collection began in 1998. Notional amounts of all types of OTC contracts stood at around $592.0 trillion at

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Oonagh McDonald

financial system. The bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the largest in American history, the fourth largest investment bank by asset size with over $600bn in assets and 25,000 employees, was at the very least the trigger for the ensuing financial crisis. Lenman's bankruptcy led to increased uncertainty, if not panic, and a wave of distressed selling of securities that caused a collapse in asset prices and a drying up of liquidity. This was immediately followed by the AIG collapse on 16 September 2008, the run on the Reserve Primary Fund on the same day