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://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/final-report-high-level-expert-group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation (accessed 15 June 2018) . Fahy , D. ( 2017 ), ‘ Objectivity, False Balance, and Advocacy in News Coverage of Climate Change ’, Oxford Research Encylopedia of Climate Science ( Oxford : Oxford University Press ). Foer , F. ( 2018 ), ‘ Reality’s End ’, The Atlantic , May 2018 . Franks , S. ( 2008 ), ‘ Getting into Bed with Charity ’, British Journalism Review 19 : 3 , 27 – 32 . Gilbert , D. ( 2018 ), ‘ Iran Is Running an Online Disinformation Campaign on the Scale of Russia’s Troll

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

example, international norms about the slave trade and aspects of empire were agreed by major states. 3 UK prime minister Theresa May recently called global elites citizens not of the world but of ‘nowhere’ ( Merrick, 2017 ). Bibliography Barnett , M. ( 2011 ), Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism ( Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press ). Barry , B. ( 1990 ), ‘ How Not to Defend Liberal Institutions ’, British Journal of Political Science , 20 : 1 , 1 – 14 . BBC ( 2018a ), ‘ Oxfam Haiti

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

. See, http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk/ 6 Except for limited pattern recognition, for Hayekian neoliberalism humans are held to be incapable of understanding society due to its alleged complexity. Fortuitously, however, the market compensates for human ignorance. The price mechanism functions like a computer and is able to achieve optimal resource allocation through its powers of spontaneous self-organisation. 7 A policy-exchange network managed by the Center for International Development at Harvard University. See: https

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement

feel that a corrupt political elite defends only its own interests and those of foreign companies. And where people can only witness what they understand as predation, they turn to violent words or deeds as a means to be recognised. This has been well described with regards to youth politics in Conakry ( Philipps, 2013 ). The contested nature of traditional authority in Sierra Leone is similarly emblematic of state–society relations. British colonialism left behind a bifurcated state ( Mamdani, 1996 ), with despotic chieftaincies in the hinterlands and a central

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.

chap 1 23/9/03 1:14 pm Page 3 1 Uncertainty, economy and improvisation In 1973 the finances of most British universities lay at the mercy of politicians and were subject to capricious cuts in public spending. Their precarious situation was a consequence of the state-financed expansion of the previous decades. What taxpayers gave, their elected representatives could pare and trim when the economy wilted and crisis loomed. In the midst of high inflation both Conservative and Labour governments failed to compensate universities for increases in the cost of

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
The emergence of bioethics in British universities

5 ‘A service to the community as a whole’: the emergence of bioethics in British universities Bioethics made inroads into British universities during the 1980s, thanks largely to those individuals, groups and political changes that we have already encountered. During the late 1970s and early 1980s members of medical groups and public figures such as Ian Kennedy called for greater emphasis on medical ethics in student training. They also stressed the benefits of ‘non-medical’ input, claiming that it relieved clinicians from teaching responsibilities and would

in The making of British bioethics

9 Student community engagement for employability and entrepreneurship in Senegal Lamine Kane, Aliou Guissé and Latyr Diouf History After connecting online, Lamine Kane of the sub-Saharan Africa Participatory Action Research Network (REPAS) and Juliet Millican from the University of Brighton used a travel grant from the British Council to meet for exploratory discussions in Dakar with members of REPAS, the Department of Applied Economics (ENEA) at Cheikh Diop University (UCAD), and nearby local communities. These discussions led to the joint preparation of a

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Open Access (free)

 Collet. bioethicists, ‘To be or not to be?’ had become an important practical question. This book draws on a wide range of sources to detail how and why bioethics became so influential in Britain, including the archives of government departments, public inquiries, universities and professional organisations, as well as private papers, published materials, press reports, television programmes and interviews. I use this material to chart the professional, social and political factors that underpinned the making of British bioethics: to show how certain individuals fashioned themselves

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)

either country, since it was here that the greatest differences were apparent.31 The legal philosopher Gerald Dworkin, then working at Queen Mary University in London, highlighted the major differences in his paper on the ‘delicate balance’ between ethics, law and medicine in Britain and the United States. Dworkin claimed that British bioethicists exerted less influence over medical practices thanks partly to the ongoing lack of a ‘permanent review body’ such as the President’s Commission, which drew up guidelines for new procedures and also issued guidelines for

in The making of British bioethics