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“I live a hope despite my knowing better”

James Baldwin in Conversation with Fritz J. Raddatz (1978)

Gianna Zocco

This is the first English-language publication of an interview with James Baldwin conducted by the German writer, editor, and journalist Fritz J. Raddatz in 1978 at Baldwin’s house in St. Paul-de-Vence. In the same year, it was published in German in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit, as well as in a book of Raddatz’s conversations with international writers, and—in Italian translation—in the newspaper La Repubblica. The interview covers various topics characteristic of Baldwin’s interests at the time—among them his thoughts about Jimmy Carter’s presidency, his reasons for planning to return to the United States, his disillusionment after the series of murders of black civil rights activists in the 1960s and 1970s, and the role of love and sexuality in his literary writings. A special emphasis lies on the discussion of possible parallels between Nazi Germany and U.S. racism, with Baldwin most prominently likening the whole city of New York to a concentration camp. Due to copyright reasons, this reprint is based on an English translation of the edited version published in German. A one-hour tape recording of the original English conversation between Raddatz and Baldwin is accessible at the German literary archive in Marbach.

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Gianna Zocco

When James Baldwin in No Name in the Street discusses the case of Tony Maynard, who had been imprisoned in Hamburg in 1967, he emphasizes that his efforts to aid his unjustly imprisoned friend were greatly supported by his German publishing house Rowohlt and, in particular, by his then-editor Fritz Raddatz (1931–2015). While the passages on Maynard remain the only instance in Baldwin’s published writings in which Raddatz—praised as a courageous “anti-Nazi German” and a kindred ally who “knows what it means to be beaten in prison”—is mentioned directly, the relation between Baldwin and Raddatz has left traces that cover over fifty years. The African-American writer and Rowohlt’s chief editor got to know each other around 1963, when Baldwin was first published in Germany. They exchanged letters between 1965 and 1984, and many of Raddatz’s critical writings from different periods—the first piece from 1965, the last from 2014—focus of Baldwin’s books. They also collaborated on various projects—among them a long interview and Baldwin’s review of Roots—which were all published in the German weekly newspaper Die Zeit, where Raddatz served as head of the literary and arts sections from 1977 to 1985. Drawing on published and unpublished writings of both men, this article provides a discussion of the most significant facets of this under-explored relationship and its literary achievements. Thereby, it sheds new light on two central questions of recent Baldwin scholarship: first, the circumstances of production and formation crucial to Baldwin’s writings of the 1970s and 1980s, and secondly, Baldwin’s international activities, his transcultural reception and influence.

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Part I: Germany

‘Deutschland den Deutschen!’

Cas Mudde

Democratic Party, SPD), combined with the traditionally weak opposition of the Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party, FDP), gave the NPD the opportunity to present itself as the only authentic (right-wing) opposition party. Within the media and scholarly community a substantial electoral success of the NPD was anticipated too. The German left-wing liberal weekly Die Zeit, for instance, reported already on 9 February 1968: In the fall of 1969, after the parliamentary election, the President will have to welcome a new party and a new parliamentary party leader to

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Birgit Lang

4 Erich Wulffen and the case of the criminal Birgit Lang In 1927, the leading illustrated weekly Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung (BIZ) introduced its readers to the twenty-one most influential German criminologists of the day. Each was represented by a portrait photograph and a caption. The result was an iconography of experts in the burgeoning fields of studying, solving and writing about crime and criminals. Among the select group was Dr Erich Wulffen (1862–1936), Head of Department in the Saxon Ministry of Justice.1 The photo essay describes Wulffen as the

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Johan Östling

deeper dissatisfaction with the state of the West German educational system. No one embodied this better than theologian and educationalist Georg Picht. In February 1964, he published a series of articles in the weekly Christ und Welt under the headline ‘Die deutsche Bildungskatastrophe’ (approx. ‘the German educational disaster’). This article attracted an enormous amount of attention, and later in the same year Picht collected his texts and the reactions to them in the book Die deutsche Bildungskatastrophe. Picht demonstrated how bad the situation was 7  Rohstock

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Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

–45. He was co-founder of the newspaper: the Neue Zeitung in Munich in 1945. In 1950 he led the American delegation to the Second World Peace Congress in Warsaw. In 1952 he returned to what was now the GDR. He was a member of the executive board of the GDR Writers’ Association but was expelled in 1979. After German unification he joined the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and was a Member of the Bundestag 1994–96. He died in

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Introduction

Crossing borders, changing times

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Madeleine Hurd, Hastings Donnan and Carolin Leutloff-Grandits

and enduring traces of border movement (Green 2012: 585). In Chapter 1, Kramsch explores a tidemark-like layering of time and space along the 4 Migrating borders and moving times border between Germany and the Netherlands. At one time heavily patrolled, the Dutch/German border has been reduced to near-insignificance by recent European Union (EU) decisions; but borderland signifiers encourage observers to remember and challenge both past and present meanings. The border can, therefore, be seen as a montage which gives time a spatial representation for those who