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Time for mapping

Cartographic temporalities

Edited by: Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins, Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Clancy Wilmott and Daniel Evans

The digital era has brought about huge transformations in the map itself, which to date have been largely conceptualised in spatial terms. The emergence of novel objects, forms, processes and approaches in the digital era has, however, posed a swathe of new, pressing questions about the temporality of digital maps and contemporary mapping practices, and in spite of its implicit spatiality, digital mapping is strongly grounded in time. In this peer-reviewed collection we bring time back into the map, taking up Doreen Massey's critical concern for 'ongoing stories' in the world, but asking how mapping continues to wrestle with the difficulty of enrolling time into these narratives, often seeking to ‘freeze’ and ‘fix’ the world, in lieu of being able to, in some way, represent, document or capture dynamic phenomena. This collection examines how these processes are impacted by digital cartographic technologies that, arguably, have disrupted our understanding of time as much as they have provided coherence. The book consists of twelve chapters that address different kinds of digital mapping practice and analyse these in relation to temporality. Cases discussed range from locative art projects, OpenStreetMap mapping parties, sensory mapping, Google Street View, visual mapping, smart city dashboards and crisis mapping. Authors from different disciplinary positions consider how a temporal lens might focus attention on different aspects of digital mapping. This kaleidoscopic approach generates a rich plethora for understanding the temporal modes of digital mapping. The interdisciplinary background of the authors allows multiple positions to be developed.

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Post-Humanitarianism

Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

Mark Duffield

. Important here is its privileging of the design principle over the need for, or even the possibility of, political change. Design Not Politics The computational turn and societal dependence on digital technologies has changed the way the world is understood and the status of humans within it ( Chandler, 2018 ). The privileging of the design principle is central to this change. Besides the spatial shift from circulation to connectivity, an ontological, epistemological and methodological translation has also taken place ( Duffield, 2018

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Introduction

Mapping times

Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott

1 Introduction: mapping times Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott Digital mapping, though generally conceived as a spatial activity, is just as strongly grounded in time. The digital era has disintegrated the representational fixity of maps, and instead given rise to maps that shift with each moment and movement. Scholars, adept at grappling with the spatial implications of digitality, continue to struggle to conceptualise and communicate the temporal consequences of maps. In this collection, we seek to take up Doreen Massey

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Conclusion

Back to the future

Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott

moments, worked on this book serves as a useful allusion to how temporality has taken on new meanings since the advent of digital mapping. Much like the digital mapping practices we have discussed in this book, time proved to be tricky, asynchronous, serendipitous, sticky and ephemeral, thanks to – or despite – digital technologies. Someone was sent out of the room where she Skyped, someone else had to walk a dog, was hungry and had to grab lunch, forgot about time differences, spilled a drink over a computer, or failed to find the right document. Every time we faced an

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Sybille Lammes, Kate McLean and Chris Perkins

-­ illustrated buildings + smells (­ collaboration with Olivia Alice) Personal association   2 2013 New York’s thresholds Digital print Nostalgia/snapshot  20 2013 Amsterdam Digital print + synthetic smells + motion graphic Collective ­snapshot + ­personal a­ ssociation + ephemerality of smell  44 2014 Canterbury Hand illustration + diffused natural smells Personal association   5 2014 Pamplona Motion graphic Individual ­perception of smell duration/ ephemerality  58 Mapping the quixotic volatility of smellscapes 53   Year Smell map city location

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Seasons change, so do we

Heterogeneous temporalities, algorithmic frames and subjective time in geomedia

Pablo Abend

hidden temporal aspects, even though the act of mapping has also been as concerned with time as it has with space. In addition to being mere ‘snapshots in time’, maps have been equipped with time stamps indicating the historical state of the world they refer to, or have been animated to depict time-critical processes such as human rhythms. But all in all, the cartographic depiction of time in pre-digital, modern times prioritised static representation Seasons change, so do we 93 of temporality, with the line being the dominant figuration of chronological

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Traces, tiles and fleeting moments

Art and the temporalities of geomedia

Gavin MacDonald

6 Traces, tiles and fleeting moments: art and the temporalities of geomedia Gavin MacDonald Introduction: geomediation in the inhabitable map In this chapter, I discuss ways in which artists have exploited and exposed the temporalities of ‘geomedia’. I am following writers working at the intersection of media studies and geography in using this term to refer to a contemporary complex of technologies, content and practices that involve mapping, remote survey visualisations and the binding of digital information to location via GPS (Thielmann, 2010; Lapenta, 2011

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Tuur Driesser

News, September 23. [Online] Available at: www.nyu.edu/about/ news-publications/news/2013/09/23/nyu-announces-winners-of-grand-challengescience-competition.html (accessed 22 May 2014). Parisi, L. (2012) Digital design and topological control. Theory, Culture and Society, 29(4/5): pp. 165–192. PathoMap (n.d.) PathomapAbout. [Online] Available at: www.pathomap.org/about/ (accessed 22 May 2014). Perkins, C. (2004) Cartography – cultures of mapping: Power in practice. Progress in Human Geography, 28(3): pp. 381–391. Townsend, A. (2009) ‘Foreword’. In: Foth, M. (eds

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Maps as foams and the rheology of digital spatial media

A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change over time

Cate Turk

9 Maps as foams and the rheology of digital spatial media: a conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change over time Cate Turk Introduction The world of mapping has rapidly moved from provisioning users with static twodimensional hard copy displays to maps that are on-line, immediate and dynamic. (Cartwright, 2013: 56) With a curious twist, we have come to think of a map like a ‘folding’ map that we carry around on our travels – a tactile three-dimensional thing with movement encapsulated in its title – as static as Abend also argues in

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Digital maps and anchored time

The case for practice theory

Matthew Hanchard

7 Digital maps and anchored time: the case for practice theory Matthew Hanchard Introduction Digital maps are increasingly embedded within everyday practices, from choosing a holiday destination to gaining directions to a bar. As hypermediate and remediate forms (Bolter and Grusin, 2000), they are situated within a complex array of connected technologies: web mapping services output digital cartography via popular web map engines like Google and Bing Maps which, in turn, sit embedded on websites. Meanwhile, location-based services allow users to check in almost