This book reviews a variety of approaches to the study of the European Union's foreign policy. Much analysis of EU foreign policy contains theoretical assumptions about the nature of the EU and its member states, their inter-relationships, the international system in which they operate and the nature of European integration. The book outlines the possibilities for the use of discourse analysis in the study of European foreign policy. It sets out to explore the research problem using a political-cultural approach and seeks to illuminate the cognitive mind-maps with which policy-makers interpret their political 'realities'. The book provides an overview and analysis of some of the non-realist approaches to international relations and foreign policy, and proposes an analytical framework with which to explore the complex interplay of factors affecting European foreign policy. The book suggests one way of seeking theoretical parsimony without sacriﬁcing the most deﬁning empirical knowledge which has been generated about Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) over the years. It argues that while the sui generis nature of CFSP presents an acute problem for international relations theory, it is less pronounced with regard to traditional integration theory. The book discusses the dimensions of European foreign policy-making with reference to the case of arms export controls. Situated at the interface between European studies and international relations, it outlines how the EU relates to the rest of the world, explaining its effort towards creating a credible, effective and principled foreign, security and defence policy.
This monograph seeks to examine the motivations for the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), the EU’s most important relationship with another regional economic integration organisation. This monograph argues that the dominant explanations in the literature -- balancing the US, global aspirations, being an external federator, long-standing economic and cultural ties, economic interdependence, and the Europeanization of Spanish and Portuguese national foreign policies – fail to adequately explain the EU’s policy. In particular, these accounts tend to infer the EU’s motives from its activity. Drawing extensive primary documents, this monograph argues that the major developments in the relationship -- the 1992 Inter-institutional Agreement and the 1995 Europe Mercosur Inter-regional Framework Cooperation Agreement – were initiated by Mercosur and supported mainly by Spain. This means that rather than the EU pursuing a strategy, as implied by most of the existing literature, the EU was largely responsive.
This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing, examining the constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links together the questions of democracy and legitimacy, competences and rights, and the prospects for European polity-building. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the emerging European polity and the questions that further treaty reform generates for the future of the regional system. The authors also assess the evolving European security architecture; the limits and possibilities of a genuine European foreign, security and defence policy; and the role of the EU in the post-Cold War international system. Common themes involve debates about stability and instability, continuity and change, multipolarity and leadership, co-operation and discord, power capabilities and patterns of behaviour. The book traces the defining features of the ‘new order’ in Europe and incorporates an analysis of the post-September 11th context.
The increasing commercialisation of sport raises important questions concerning regulation. The development of the European Union (EU) and the internationalization of sporting competition have added an international dimension to this debate. Yet sport is not only a business, it is a social and cultural activity. Can regulation at the EU level reconcile this tension? Adopting a distinctive legal and political analysis, this book argues that the EU is receptive to the claim of sport for special treatment before the law. It investigates the birth of EU sports law and policy by examining the impact of the Bosman ruling and other important European Court of Justice decisions, the relationship between sport and EU competition law, focusing particularly on the broadcasting of sport, the organization of sport and the international transfer system, and the relationship between sport and the EU Treaty, focusing in particular on the impact of the Amsterdam and Nice declarations on sport and the significance of the Helsinki report on sport. This text raises questions concerning the appropriate theoretical tools for analysing European integration.
The EU is not a state and is not a traditional international organization. It
is common to characterize it as a hybrid system with a federal component,
but nothing comparable exists at this point in time. To understand EU
policy-making towards Mercosur it is important to understand the internal
system of the EU, its internal policy-making and the internal system of
Mercosur, particularly given that Mercosur has tried to replicate the institutional design of the EU.
Since its creation in 1957 in the
defence policy was included in the provisions of the Treaty on EuropeanUnion (1993) it became, at least in principle, a tous azimut foreign
policy institution. Thus, while observers of developments during the 1970s
and 1980s noted a somewhat slow beginning (Wallace 1983a ; Nuttall 1992 ; Nørgaard Pedersen and Petersen 1993 ), observers of the 1990s
have noted that European decision-makers during the 1990s significantly
The EuropeanUnion’s dilemma
The EuropeanUnion’s dilemma:
towards a union or not?
From its humble beginnings, [the Roman Empire] has grown so much that it is
now suffering under its own size. (Titus Livius)1
In March 1999 the European Commission, the EuropeanUnion’s executive
branch, resigned under accusations of fraud, nepotism and mismanagement, leading to intensive soul-searching as to what could be the right
form of management for the EU. How could the democratic aspects of
the emerging entity be enhanced? How could democracy be improved
Issues concerning women
➤ Descriptions of the main issues facing the EuropeanUnion
➤ Review of these issues
➤ Speculations as to the future course of the issues
THE DEMOCRATIC DEFICIT
AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORM
The nature of the democratic deficit
The issues concerning individual institutions of the EuropeanUnion are
described in chapter 14, on EU Institutions. However, a number of general
remarks can be made at this stage. The main concerns which politicians from
member countries and commentators have include the following
Britain and the EuropeanUnion
➤ The background to British membership
➤ The main impacts of British membership
➤ The ways in which the party system has been affected by the EU
➤ Future prospects for British involvement
THE STORY OF BRITISH MEMBERSHIP
Britain stays out
When serious discussions began to establish a successor to the European Coal
and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1956, Britain made it clear that it was not
intending to join any new organisation. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, a
Andreas Maurer and Wolfgang Wessels
The EuropeanUnion matters:
structuring self-made offers and
Self-made demands from the EU: analysing the impact of Maastricht
The evolution of European integration since 1950 has been considerable.
The EuropeanUnion has gained in stature, taking on and aspiring to new
functions across the policy spectrum and challenging the conceptualisation of the evolving structure for joint problem-solving, deliberation and
The evolution of the Union: stages of constitution