Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

inaugural event leading to the adoption of the first diplomatic treaty with humanitarian aims. A Franco-Sardinian coalition led by Napoleon III was fighting the Austrian army led by Emperor Franz Joseph. It was outside Solferino, a small town in northern Italy, that one of the bloodiest battles since the end of the Napoleonic Wars was fought in 1859, leaving more than 30,000 dead and wounded in a single day of combat. Henry Dunant, a Swiss citizen who was trying to get in contact with

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A tradition of indirection
Author: Rachel E. Hile

This book examines the satirical poetry of Edmund Spenser and argues for his importance as a model and influence for younger poets writing satires in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The book focuses on reading satirical texts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in relation to one another, with specific attention to the role that Edmund Spenser plays in that literary subsystem. The book connects key Spenserian texts in The Shepheardes Calender and the Complaints volume with poems by a range of authors in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, including Joseph Hall, Thomas Nashe, Tailboys Dymoke, Thomas Middleton, and George Wither to advance the thesis that Spenser was seen by his contemporaries as highly relevant to satire in Elizabethan England. For scholars of satire, the book offers a fuller discussion and theorization of the type of satire that Spenser wrote, “indirect satire,” than has been provided elsewhere. A theory of indirect satire benefits not just Spenser studies, but satire studies as well. For scholars of English Renaissance satire in particular, who have tended to focus on the formal verse satires of the 1590s to the exclusion of attention to more indirect forms such as Spenser’s, this book is a corrective, an invitation to recognize the importance of a style of satire that has received little attention.

Rachel E. Hile

significantly as did others of his works. To put it mildly, it would have appeared presumptuous in the extreme for a young satirist of the 1590s to use The Faerie Queene as a pretext. Although I argue in this chapter that Joseph Hall does precisely that in Virgidemiarum Sixe Bookes, it was a bold move, which he presents as such and mitigates through obsequiously emphasizing the value of Spenser among poets. In my study, I have found Spenser’s earlier, shorter, more modest (in rota terms) poetry to be more productive of imitation and allusion among younger poets in the 1590s

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Winifred Dolan beyond the West End
Lucie Sutherland

theatre management. Early in 1904 Dolan moved on to a post as London Secretary for the Women’s Unionist Association (an adjunct of the Conservative Party), and when the organisation was disbanded in 1917 she became a teacher at ­70 The social and theatrical realm the Catholic New Hall School (then with an all-female student body), in Chelmsford. She was responsible for the introduction of regular drama work for the students, a feature that continues to be cited as characteristic of the school.2 Dolan was offered a home there, even into retirement, and she developed

in Stage women, 1900–50
Brian Pullan and Michele Abendstern

catered halls which had to pay large wage bills. The NUS, as the national negotiating body, ceased for a time to argue for increases which would have restored the grant to its old level. Such ill-timed demands would have seemed absurdly unrealistic, dwarfing the wage claims made by public sector workers, and would have stigmatised students as greedy and naïve. Few tangible results flowed from ritual protests, such as burning Sir Keith Joseph in effigy chap 12 23/9/03 270 1:19 pm Page 270 The 1980s or conducting all-night work-ins in the John Rylands Library with

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Paul Salzman

author/protagonist of Bishop Joseph Hall’s Mundus Alter et Idem (‘A World Different and Yet the Same’), published in Latin in 1605 and in an English translation in 1609. I will return to Hall’s work in detail below; it is important to note here that Mundus Alter et Idem is fiercely satirical, rather in the manner of Gulliver’s Travels, and is quite different from the musings of Burton about an idealised world which will contrast with the diseased world of reality. Burton sees himself as creating his utopia, not discovering it: ‘I will chuse a site.’9 Burton’s utopia is

in Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis
Steve Sohmer

privileged young Englishmen and their mistresses and wives attended a play believed to be Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night in the hall of the Middle Temple, one of London’s four legal-social men’s foundations collectively known as the Inns of Court. 1 The occasion was Candlemas, officially the Feast of the Presentation of Our Lord in the

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Charles V. Reed

generation was embraced as a standard practice and duty. Educated principally in and about the empire, rather than the Continent, tutored by Joseph Chamberlain, and coming of age in an era of perceived imperial crisis, the future George V accepted and embraced the dignified functions of the empire without his grandmother’s struggle for political power, on one hand, or bereaved ambivalence, on the other. In

in Royal tourists, colonial subjects and the making of a British world, 1860–1911
Open Access (free)
Joseph Jaconelli

Joseph Jaconelli 1 What is a trial? Joseph Jaconelli I Three questions To pose the question, ‘What is a trial?’, is to invite an answer which aims to transcend particular times, places and cultures. It is to suggest that, stripped of the rules that are peculiar to particular legal systems, those processes that are properly called ‘trials’ contain some inner essence. It is to claim that the proceedings against Socrates under Athenian law in 399 bc and those brought against Jesus in ad 30 under Jewish and Roman legal procedures have features in common with the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700