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From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

; all quotes from the circulars are taken verbatim from the documents on file with the author. In undertaking this close reading of the documents, I trace the nature and implications of a series of UNRWA’s more ‘private’ responses to the 2018 cuts, with a particular focus on shifts in educational and maternal and neonatal health services on the one hand and employment and pension rights on the other. I thus illustrate the extent to which UNRWA’s operational changes are invisible on the international stage and yet are having significant impacts

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

contrast, the meaning and use of innovation within the private sector evolved over decades, and research studies began emerging as a separate field in the 1960s ( Fagerberg, 2004 ). An early definition from the private sector described innovation as the ‘generation, acceptance and implementation of new ideas, processes, products or services’ ( Thompson, 1965 : 36). This clear and concise meaning was advanced to incorporate concepts of creativity ( Amabile et al. , 1996 : 25), profitability

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

Dignity and Solidarity to Response and Research ’, in Lysaught , M. T. and McCarthy , M. (eds), Catholic Bioethics and Social Justice: The Praxis of US Health Care in a Globalized World ( Collegeville, MN : Liturgical Press ), 343 – 57 . O’Mathúna , D. P

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

into account’ ( ibid .: 81) might simply involve changing the timing of cash transfers, altering the labelling on foodstuffs, simplifying processes or service take up, sending out regular reminders, marketing new social norms or ‘reducing salience of stigmatised identities’ ( ibid .: 3). The cognitive tax on the precariat could be reduced by shifting the timing of critical decision-making regarding, for example, education, health or employment ‘away from periods when cognitive capacity and energy (bandwidth) are predictably low’. At the same

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

. 4 Alex de Waal has offered a different interpretation of the events in Jonglei from that of MSF-H ( de Waal, 2014 ). Looking at elite politics in South Sudan, de Waal argued that since the signing of the CPA with Khartoum, the oil and, to a lesser extent, aid revenues now available to South Sudanese leaders had been consistently used to build patronage linkages and private security loyalties, leaving scant resources for health and other public services. This system had

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

disinformation. But they have not yet closely examined their impact in humanitarian crises. This is a remarkable oversight. In humanitarian crises, false information can have life-and-death consequences. As Jeanne Bourgault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Internews, states, false information can ‘undercut efforts to improve health, make disasters worse than they already are, alienate vulnerable populations, and even incite violence’ (quoted in Igoe, 2017 ). This article introduces the emerging research about online disinformation and the many forms it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

can be placed on or inside aid recipients’ bodies for many purposes, including tracking and protecting health, safety and nutrition. This may involve delivering or monitoring reproductive health, producing security and accountability through more efficient registration, or monitoring or delivering nutrition. I argue that, to unpack this co-production, it is necessary to look beyond technological innovation and subsequent processes of adoption and adaptation in the humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This handbook is written for patients and members of the public who want to understand more about the approaches, methods and language used by health-services researchers. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is now a requirement of most major health-research programmes, and this book is designed to equip these individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary for meaningful participation. Edited by award-winning mental-health researchers, the book has been produced in partnership with mental-health-service users and carers with experience of research involvement. It includes personal reflections from these individuals alongside detailed information on quantitative, qualitative and health-economics research methods, and comprehensively covers all the basics needed for large-scale health research projects: systematic reviews; research design and analysis using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; health economics; research ethics; impact and dissemination. This book was developed during a five-year research programme funded by the UK’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) called Enhancing the Quality of User Involved Care Planning in Mental Health Services (EQUIP). The handbook clearly outlines research practices, and gives an insight into how public and patient representatives can be involved in them and shape decisions. Each chapter ends with a reflective exercise, and there are also some suggested sources of additional reading. People who get involved in health research as experts from experience now have a textbook to support their research involvement journey.

Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

primarily in terms of protecting people’s access to medical and healthcare services, the absence of campaigns of a comparable scale concerned with attacks on other civilians is notable. While most agencies favour staff-security strategies centred on acceptance in theory, many – especially UN agencies – rely on harder strategies in practice ( Collinson and Duffield, 2013 : 12). For example, staff may travel under armed escort. Aid agencies are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.