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Balkan holocausts?

Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia

Series:

David Bruce MacDonald

Comparing and contrasting propaganda in Serbia and Croatia from 1986 to 1999, this book analyses each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of Holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalist theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called Holocaust industry, and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. There is a detailed analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda over the Internet, detailing how and why the Internet war was as important as the ground wars in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina, and a theme-by-theme analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, using contemporary media sources, novels, academic works and journals.

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Instrumentalising the Holocaust

From universalisation to relativism

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David Bruce MacDonald

Jews that is said to carry universal lessons . . . Individuals from every point on the political compass can find the lessons they wish in the Holocaust; it has become a moral and ideological Rorschach test. (Peter Novick, The Holocaust and Collective Memory)2 ARGUE THROUGHOUT this book that negative imagery has been a crucial building-block in Serbian and Croatian national myths. These myths have been used to legitimate the forced shifting of borders, the ethnic cleansing of populations, and various other violent aspects of state formation. Equally important has

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‘Earth conceal not my blood’

Forensic and archaeological approaches to locating the remains of Holocaust victims

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Caroline Sturdy Colls

163 7 ‘Earth conceal not my blood’: forensic and archaeological approaches to locating the remains of Holocaust victims Caroline Sturdy Colls Introduction ‘Earth conceal not my blood’. It is this statement with which every visitor to Sobibór in Poland was confronted as they entered the memorial site marking the former Nazi extermination camp that existed there from April 1942 to October 1943.1 This echoed the biblical statement in the Book of Job, in which Job pleads ‘O earth, cover not thou my blood, and let my cry have no resting place’.2 Although this line

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Series:

David Deutsch

imagery of Jewish resistance.41 The wide-​ranging legislation that ensured the perpetuation of the memory of Holocaust victims in the 1950s was constantly linked to the Jewish state. Linear linkage between the Holocaust and Zionism was rarely contravened in Israeli public dialogue up until the early 1970s. It is within this 100 100   Human remains in society context that several Zionist rabbis, including Efrati, published their legal responsas. In his ruling, Efrati makes an unusual pronouncement: ‘I hereby announce the establishment of a council that will devote its

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Conclusions

Confronting relativism in Serbia and Croatia

Series:

David Bruce MacDonald

: confronting relativism in Serbia and Croatia root of conflict. In trying to analyse the successes and failures of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, we need to understand clearly whether or not any actual genocides took place in the Balkans, either in history, or during the more contemporary period. This includes the general question of whether the manipulation of Holocaust imagery is a useful means for nations to advance their political agendas. I have argued that general Fall imagery and imagery of the Holocaust have played an extremely important role in rallying

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Comparing genocides

‘Numbers games’ and ‘holocausts’ at Jasenovac and Bleiburg

Series:

David Bruce MacDonald

victim, to cast themselves as martyrs, having suffered not only from genocide, but also a concerted effort by the enemy to cover up the TRUTH. Bleiburg: the Croatian ‘holocaust’ For Croats, the massacre of Croatian, Slovenian and Serbian collaborators by Tito’s Partisans was rich in imagery. It symbolised Croatian repression in the Second World War, and later during the Communist period. That Croats were forbidden to discuss it, let alone debate the numbers killed during Tito’s lifetime, made it a sort of ‘underground’ secret, which had to be discussed carefully with

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Series:

Robert Burgoyne

brothers in 1896 – seems to be increasingly under assault. The widespread use of computer generated imagery in film, which allows filmmakers to fuse photographic and digital images – as well as documentary and fictional footage – in the same composited frame, is only one aspect of a rapid and accelerating movement toward replacing celluloid with the infinitely malleable medium of digital imaging, a

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What is the nation?

Towards a teleological model of nationalism

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David Bruce MacDonald

, the manipulation of myths and national history performed an incredibly important role during the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1980s, and the wars of succession that followed after 1990. Before analysing these national myths, and their specific political objectives, it will be useful to understand what species, or general types, of myths have been used – and why. Reviewing the works of many major nationalism theorists, this chapter introduces a useful analytical model to help understand the nature of Serbian and Croatian myths, the types of imagery they invoke, and

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Series:

David Bruce MacDonald

histories and legitimating state-building projects. As I will demonstrate from Chapters 3 to 8, Serbs and Croats entered into this timely and controversial debate. Both groups used claims of victimisation and persecution to legitimate their own state-building or state-expanding projects, with often violent consequences. Both the Judaeo-Christian covenantal culture and the instrumentalisation of Holocaust imagery have been of central importance in structuring 6 2441Introduction 16/10/02 8:02 am Page 7 Introduction Serbian and Croatian representations of the past and

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‘Greater Serbia’ and ‘Greater Croatia’

The Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina

Series:

David Bruce MacDonald

concealed an Islamic conspiracy to take over Europe. While the third theme will be discussed later, it is useful to understand the first one clearly. To summarise this argument: while the Moslems of Bosnia had been forced to convert to Islam, certain linguistic and cultural attributes still marked them as either Serb or Croat. Bosnian Moslems were seen to be members of one religious community, while at the same time belonging to an 221 2441Chapter8 16/10/02 8:06 am Page 222 Balkan holocausts? altogether different ethnic group. Because of these highly contested