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Balkan holocausts?

Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia

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David Bruce MacDonald

Comparing and contrasting propaganda in Serbia and Croatia from 1986 to 1999, this book analyses each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of Holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalist theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called Holocaust industry, and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. There is a detailed analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda over the Internet, detailing how and why the Internet war was as important as the ground wars in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina, and a theme-by-theme analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, using contemporary media sources, novels, academic works and journals.

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Instrumentalising the Holocaust

From universalisation to relativism

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David Bruce MacDonald

, suggests that the emerging importance of the Holocaust from 1967 onwards was in part a political process, to ensure that the struggles and sufferings of those who created the State of Israel would not be in vain – that Redemption would continue to follow the greatest Fall in Jewish history. It would be remiss not to mention in passing the more extreme extension of Novick’s thesis – Norman Finkelstein’s The Holocaust Industry, which appeared in 2000, parroting many of Novick’s themes, while padding them out with fresh polemical assertions. Finkelstein began by taking

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Sinnreich erdacht

Machines of mass incineration in fact, fiction, and forensics

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Robert Jan van Pelt

Holocaust, derived from a Greek word that means ‘something wholly burnt’.4 Often people refer loosely to the ‘gas ovens’ of Auschwitz, collapsing the gas chambers and crematoria ovens into one spurious umbrella concept that equates killing and burning. One of the first memoirs of Auschwitz, written by Sonia Landau and published under the Polish-Christian name she had adopted after her escape from the Warsaw ghetto, Krystyna Zywulska, systematically conflated the killing and burning. Indeed, while 99.99 per cent of the bodies that were burned were the corpses of people

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Invisible men

The historian and the male witch

Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

of the Nazi holocaust in which everyone would agree that the majority of victims were Jewish, but no one would mention anti-Semitism or the history of violent persecution against Jews, thereby implying that it was ‘natural’ for Jews to be victims. Without mention of a tradition of oppression of women,the implication for the sixteenth century is that of course women would be

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Introduction

Memory and popular film

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Paul Grainge

and peoples that belong, figuratively, to other cultures and contexts. Steven Spielberg’s treatment of the Holocaust in Schindler’s List (1993) is a marked example, generating discussion about the capacity of American/popular film to address the gravity of a subject that has become an encompassing trope of twentieth-century trauma. On the one hand, Schindler’s List was accused of representing events within conventional

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Tito’s Yugoslavia and after

Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia

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David Bruce MacDonald

Balkan holocausts? National leaders were seen as little more than the latest exponents of age-old ideologies and national strategies. The theme of the ‘universal culprit’ was advanced throughout the conflict. Milošević became a nineteenth-century Greater Serbian politician, with a bit of Adolf Hitler thrown in for good measure. Tudjman was nothing less than the reincarnation of Ante Pavelić. The Second World War was being reenacted in Serbia and Croatia, and all decisions would be calculated on an analysis of the past, not on a realistic assessment of contemporary

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Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

numerous taboos around corpses. Yet, while the major monotheisms appear in most of the volume’s case studies, they do not state any clear religious policies regarding corpses en masse. For instance, Orthodox Jewish law, the Halakha, which deals in minute detail with the treatment of individuals who have died of natural causes, proved incapable of applying the same rules to the situations that arose from the Holocaust. This becomes 4 4   Human remains in society very clear from reading the chapter by David Deutsch who, by analysing the Orthodox rabbinic Responsas

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Janet Wolff

together by the wish to preserve and consolidate established privilege vis-à-vis those without privilege. Levi included himself among those in the grey zone, exploring his residual feelings of guilt in an essay on shame. Still, he is less concerned to identify and judge levels of collaboration than to insist on the recognition of circumstances of confusion and ambiguity. Scholars of the Holocaust have since shown how many ‘grey zone’ areas there were outside the camp and the ghetto – in industry, in the church, in the French detention centres, even in the area of

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Janet Wolff

they honour those who died in the Holocaust. Speakers recalled a time when Jews and Christians had lived together in peaceful and mutually enriching relations. The afternoon started out sunny, but a storm broke in the middle of the proceedings, and the speeches continued under heavy rain. Among those attending – about fifty people – was Claude Levy. The local paper, the Pirmasenser Zeitung, notes his presence: Berührend war die Anwesenheit des ältesten Teilnehmers, Claude Levy, der einst als Kurt Levy in Busenberg das Licht der Welt erblickte. Aufrecht stehend wohnte

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Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

6 The return of the Jewish question and the double life of Israel So now the Jew is mistrusted not for what he is, but for the anti-Semitism of which he is the cause. And no Jew is more the cause of anti-Semitism than the Jew who speaks of anti-Semitism. (Howard Jacobson, When Will the Jews be Forgiven for the Holocaust? ) 1 Those who have always felt that Jews were