Open Access (free)

Duncan Wilson

2 Ian Ramsey, theology and ‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics During the 1960s and 1970s Anglican theologians increasingly endorsed ‘trans-disciplinary’ discussion of new procedures such as IVF in societies and journals dedicated to medical ethics.1 Although theological engagement with medical ethics was by no means new, it increased from the 1960s thanks to a decline in religious belief. Figures such as Ian Ramsey, an Oxford theologian and later Bishop of Durham, endorsed greater engagement with social and moral issues to maintain the Church’s relevance in

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Duncan Wilson

The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.

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‘Who’s for bioethics?’

Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

Duncan Wilson

–5. 54 Kennedy, ‘What is a Medical Decision?’, p. 22. 55 Ian Kennedy, ‘Tinkering with or Retooling the NHS is Not What is Needed’, Listener, 20 November 1980, pp. 677–9. See also Kennedy in Reynolds and Tansey (eds), Medical Ethics Education in Britain, p. 48. 56 Kennedy, interview with the author (2010). 57 Kennedy ‘Tinkering with or Retooling the NHS’, p. 679. 58 Kennedy, ‘What is a Medical Decision?’, p. 27. 59 Kennedy, ‘The Legal Effect of Requests by the Terminally Ill’, p. 220. See also Ramsey, The Patient as Person, p. 116. 60 Kennedy, interview

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‘Embattled tendencies’

Wharton,Woolf and the nature of Modernism

Katherine Joslin

echo the line: ‘I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been’.38 By the time Wharton and Woolf get to what many critics consider their finest novels, however, they have moved sharply apart in form and, though less so, in content. The Age of Innocence (1920) and To the Lighthouse (1927) continue to tell stories about the shape of the family and its force on individual members, especially on women. Woolf reduces the cast to a single family, the Ramseys, and some few friends; Wharton’s world encompasses all of Old New York and its tending of one

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Consolidating the ‘ethics industry’

A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s

Duncan Wilson

with the author (2010). 130 Anon, ‘Long-Time Critic of Vested Medical Interests’. Kennedy served as a member of the GMC between 1984 and 1993. 131 Annabel Ferriman, ‘Bristol Inquiry Appoints Doctor to its Panel’, British Medical Journal, Vol. 318 (1999) p. 283. 132 Sarah Ramsey, ‘UK “Bristol Case” Inquiry Formally Opened’, Lancet, Vol. 353 (1999) p. 987. 133 Ibid. 134 John Warden, ‘Cardiac Surgery Inquiry Given Wide Remit’, British Medical Journal, Vol. 317 (1998) p. 498. 135 Ian Kennedy, quoted in Ferriman, ‘Bristol Inquiry Appoints Doctor’, p. 283. 136

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‘Where to draw the line?’

Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise

Duncan Wilson

 Warnock, embryos and moral expertise 143 where claiming ‘you ought to do X’ at once commits me to doing so and instructs others to do likewise.15 But Hare’s work was still concerned with the nature of moral language, not with concrete questions of what ought to happen in specific situations. Even when he spoke at meetings on practical subjects, such as Ian Ramsey’s symposium on ‘Personality and Science’, Hare simply clarified the use of words and concepts such as ‘personality’.16 Like their colleagues elsewhere, Oxford philosophers firmly believed they ‘had no more right to

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‘A service to the community as a whole’

The emergence of bioethics in British universities

Duncan Wilson

train journey to a debate on surrogacy at the University of Aberdeen, Harris met Anthony Dyson, professor of social and pastoral theology at the University of Manchester. Like Ian Ramsey and Gordon Dunstan, Dyson believed that theology needed to engage with contemporary concerns to remain relevant. He also shared their enthusiasm for interdisciplinary collaboration, which he had had the chance to satisfy when he served on the Warnock inquiry between 1982 and 1984.98 These convictions were clear in a talk to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, when Dyson

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Duncan Wilson

as IVF during the late 1960s and 1970s, and shows how this was led by Anglican theologians. I detail how these theologians argued that ‘trans-disciplinary groups’ were vital to discussing medical ethics, and outline how this formed part of efforts to stay relevant in the face of a decline in religious belief. I outline how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that ‘transdisciplinary groups’ were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies, and examine their links with influential figures in the early history of American

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Ethics ‘by and for professions’

The origins and endurance of club regulation

Duncan Wilson

Moot failed to reach agreement on any concrete proposals, and it wound up shortly after Mannheim’s death in 1947. See Grimley, ‘Moot’. 129 Anon, ‘Introduction’, Bulletin of the Churches’ Council of Healing, no. 1 (1967) pp. 3–4 (p. 3). Held in the Ian Ramsey Papers at Durham Cathedral Archives (uncatalogued at time of writing). Henceforth Ramsey archives. 130 Anon, ‘British Medical Association: Proceedings of Council’, British Medical Journal, Vol. 1 (1947) pp. 103–14 (p. 112). 131 Ibid, p. 112. 132 Ibid, p. 105. 133 Ibid, p. 112. 134 Ibid. 135 George T

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Introduction

Reading practices and participation in digital and medieval media

Series:

Heather Blatt

, Sémiologies (Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal, 1985). 15 Eileen A. Joy and Myra J. Seaman, ‘Through a glass, darkly: medieval cultural studies at the end of history’, in Cultural studies of the modern Middle Ages, ed. Eileen A. Joy, Myra J. Seaman, Kimberly K. Bell, and Mary K. Ramsey (New York: Palgrave, 2007), 1–22. Relatedly, Introduction 21 see also Truth and tales: cultural mobility and medieval media, ed. Fiona Somerset and Nicholas Watson (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2015). 16 Rebecca Krug, Reading families: women’s literate practice in