The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

Emigration and the spread of Irish religious influence

commentator Orestes Brownson pointed out: What is peculiar in the modern missions of the Irish […] is that the people precede the pastor. They go out from Ireland as soldiers or as laborers, and wherever they go they carry their faith and devotion to the church with them. The priest soon follows them, and the nucleus of a Christendom is formed.14 This, as Brownson implied, contrasted with Ireland’s earlier missions, the medieval ‘golden age’ when Columbanus, Colm Cille, Aidan and other Irish monks had founded significant early Christian settlements across Europe

in Population, providence and empire
The pastoral responses of the Irish churches to emigration

, delved even further into the past. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity – Roman or non-Roman, depending upon the claimant’s allegiance – all over Europe, and should act as an 99 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 99 15/09/2014 11:47 Population, providence and empire inspiration to the modern cleric.57 Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith (explored in further detail in Chapters

in Population, providence and empire
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Representations of Irish political leaders in the ‘Haughey’ plays of Carr, Barry and Breen

9780719075636_4_005.qxd 16/2/09 9:24 AM Page 79 5 The stuff of tragedy? Representations of Irish political leaders in the ‘Haughey’ plays of Carr, Barry and Breen Anthony Roche Plays which deal directly with political life are rare in the Irish canon. Mostly, the emphasis is on family relations, with the direct political context placed in the background, if not almost entirely effaced. But there are those exceptional occasions when contemporary playwrights have felt the need to address the state of the nation more directly by placing politicians squarely on

in Irish literature since 1990
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Romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction

2 Gothic genres: romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction In his Revelations of the dead-alive (1824), John Banim depicts his time-travelling narrator encountering future interpretations of the fiction of Walter Scott. In twenty-first-century London, Banim's narrator realises, Scott is little read; when he is, he is understood, as James Kelly points out, ‘not as the progenitor of the historical novel but rather as the last in line of an earlier Gothic style’. 1 According to the readers encountered in his travels

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic

carried out through a mediator who is employed by villagers to perform the witchcraft, or to use the local term megcsináltat (‘to have someone done in’). This mediator is in most cases a kaluger , a Romanian Orthodox monk or priest, 7 although sometimes a lay magician – a guruzsló or gurucsáló – from the same or a neighbouring village provides the same service. Compared to the large number of clients of the Romanian

in Witchcraft Continued
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‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott

1 Gothic temporalities: ‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott In 1762, Thomas Leland, a Church of Ireland clergyman, historian, and Professor of Oratory at Trinity College Dublin, published his only novel, Longsword, Earl of Salisbury . Praised by The Critical Review as ‘a new and agreeable species of writing, in which the beauties of poetry, and the advantages of history are happily united’, Longsword enjoyed both favourable reviews and popular acclaim. 1 It was reprinted in

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829

authors relate a story in which their hero is spied upon by a suspicious monk while engaged in solitary prayer’.20 The Columban influence on this incident becomes even more intriguing if we consider the early Irish Church’s division of martyrdom into three colours: red, white and glas. Here, each colour is linked to a different kind of suffering. It is the last colour  –​glas  –​that can be most strongly related to the suffering endured by Cuthbert in his Lives. What did glas or glasmartre actually signify in the early Irish tradition? Clare Stancliffe carried out a

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture

given voting rights as citizens of that state. The example he cites is Algeria prior to independence in 1962, but one could also instance Ireland during the nineteenth century, when its voters sent MPs to Westminster. If we assume (contrary to fact) that every adult member of those territories had been awarded voting rights, then ASC would have been fully satisfied. As Bauböck says, the lesson here is that “a democratic principle of membership

in Democratic inclusion
Re-examining paradigms of sibling incest

model to which subsequent Gothic writers adhered or from which they departed. The inclusion of Matthew Lewis’s The Monk ( 1796 ) is essential to disrupt the Gothic genealogy that so frequently reads Radcliffe’s The Italian ( 1797 ) as a reaction to Lewis’s novel without first examining The Monk as a response to and radical departure from the Radcliffean model of sibling

in Gothic incest