History Security-risk management has long been a concern at Médecins du Monde (MdM),
as it was for other humanitarian agencies operating at the height of the Cold War.
However, it was in the 1990s that security had to address its own set of issues. The
collapse of the Soviet bloc and the post-Cold War conflicts created safety issues
for humanitarian agencies: a booming aid sector led to an increase in exposure,
together with a trend for humanitarian organisations to shift from working