Chapter 3: Quantitative research design Owen Price and Karina Lovell Chapter overview Quantitative research uses large samples and, as such, the findings of well-conducted studies can often be generalised to larger populations. However, it is important that studies are well-designed to avoid errors in their interpretation and/or the reporting of inaccurate results. Misleading results from quantitative studies can have serious negative implications such as wasting public money on flawed policies and subjecting service users to ineffective or harmful treatments
Owen Price and Karina Lovell
Patrick Callaghan and Penny Bee
Quantitative Data Analysis Patrick Callaghan and Penny Bee Chapter overview Quantitative data analysis makes sense of numerical data. We often refer to quantitative data analysis as statistical analysis, and you may see this term used in published research papers. We can use numbers to summarise the experiences or characteristics of a group of participants, for example their average age or the number of symptoms they report. We can also use numbers to look at people’s behaviours, experiences and views, for example the number of people using mental health
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper
Bentiu and Leer, violence associated with the dynamics of offensives extended to the hospitals run or supported by the Dutch section of MSF (MSF-Holland, hereafter MSF-H). What motivated these specific acts of violence? And what were the effects of these attacks on the provision of healthcare in the area? Concerns expressed over the last decade by medical aid organisations and public health institutions regarding attacks on health facilities and personnel have generated a growing demand for multi-country or global quantitative studies on the issue. In contrast
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
observation above, often summed up with two figures: during the First World War, 80–90 per cent of the victims were soldiers, whereas the proportions are now reversed ( Kaldor, 1999 ; Roberts, 2010 ). In reality, the biggest victims of current conflicts – at least in terms of numbers – are young men of fighting age. We are no doubt more sensitive to the loss of women and children, but that loss is numerically smaller than that of men. The 90/10 ratio is more an attempt to dramatise than a quantitative estimate. We should also point out how hard it is to distinguish
Edited by: Penny Bee, Helen Brooks, Patrick Callaghan and Karina Lovell
This handbook is written for patients and members of the public who want to understand more about the approaches, methods and language used by health-services researchers. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is now a requirement of most major health-research programmes, and this book is designed to equip these individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary for meaningful participation. Edited by award-winning mental-health researchers, the book has been produced in partnership with mental-health-service users and carers with experience of research involvement. It includes personal reflections from these individuals alongside detailed information on quantitative, qualitative and health-economics research methods, and comprehensively covers all the basics needed for large-scale health research projects: systematic reviews; research design and analysis using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; health economics; research ethics; impact and dissemination. This book was developed during a five-year research programme funded by the UK’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) called Enhancing the Quality of User Involved Care Planning in Mental Health Services (EQUIP). The handbook clearly outlines research practices, and gives an insight into how public and patient representatives can be involved in them and shape decisions. Each chapter ends with a reflective exercise, and there are also some suggested sources of additional reading. People who get involved in health research as experts from experience now have a textbook to support their research involvement journey.
The gothic novel in Ireland, 1760–1830 offers a compelling account of the development of gothic literature in late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century Ireland. Against traditional scholarly understandings of Irish gothic fiction as a largely late-nineteenth century development, this study recovers to view a whole body of Irish literary production too often overlooked today. Its robust examination of primary texts, the contexts in which they were produced, and the critical perspectives from which they have been analysed yields a rigorous account of the largely retrospective formal and generic classifications that have worked to eliminate eighteenth-century and Romantic-era Irish fiction from the history of gothic literature. The works assessed here powerfully demonstrate that what we now understand as typical of ‘the gothic novel’– medieval, Catholic Continental settings; supernatural figures and events; an interest in the assertion of British modernity – is not necessarily what eighteenth- and nineteenth-century readers or writers would have identified as ‘gothic’. They moreover point to the manner in which scholarly focus on the national tale and allied genres has effected an erasure of the continued production and influence of gothic literature in Romantic Ireland. Combining quantitative analysis with meticulous qualitative readings of a selection of representative texts, this book sketches a new formal, generic, and ideological map of gothic literary production in this period. As it does so, it persuasively positions Irish works and authors at the centre of a newly understood paradigm of the development of the literary gothic across Ireland, Britain, and Europe between 1760 and 1830.
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Edited by: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins
Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.
Tania Anne Woloshyn
Chapter 2 questions British physicians’ conflicting perceptions towards sunburn (solar erythema) in the therapeutic process, as a physiological marker at once feared and desired during the cure. Both the visual sign of damage and therapeutic success, sunburn’s value was hotly contested amongst practitioners. This chapter tracks the ambivalent role of sunburn in the dosage standardisation of ultraviolet light through documentary photographs of c.1893-1940 that are particularly difficult to read, both literally and figuratively, beginning with a photograph of Finsen’s irradiated, sunburnt forearm - one of the earliest images, if not indeed the first, of ‘modern’ light therapy. British physicians and researchers came to convey enormous conceptual weight onto the visual production of sunburn, a phenomenon known to be visibly transient, latent and variable according to the individual, and thus a particularly uncooperative visual anchor on which to standardise exposures. The chapter argues that the very desire to ‘fix’ sunburn (to photographically record it for measurable qualitative and quantitative data), in spite of its variability, betrays deep-seated anxieties on the part of practitioners to wrestle control over light therapy as a purportedly ‘systematic’ and ‘modern’ form of medicine.
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
research can be: • undertaken independently in its own right part of a bigger study or trial, to provide deeper understanding of the • asquantitative (numerical) results used to support the development of quantitative studies by informing • beor testing survey content and to explore the implementation of quantitative studies BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 96 11/05/2018 16:15 Figure 18 Examples of EQUIP research questions addressed using qualitative research methods • How do service users conceptualise care planning involvement? can meaningful service user and carer
Kelly Rushton and Owen Price
systematic reviews are important Introduction Traditionally, systematic reviews have combined evidence from treatment trials and have answered ‘yes/no’ questions such as ‘Does this treatment work?’, ‘Is it safe?’ This involves combining ‘quantitative’ data (data related to numbers) across a large number of participants and studies and calculating what the average benefit (or risk) of a treatment might be. More recently, systematic reviews have also combined findings from ‘qualitative’ studies. Qualitative studies explore people’s views, experiences and beliefs in an in