A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers Chapter 7: Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers Chapter overview The term ‘qualitative research’ encompasses a wide range of different methods. What underpins these is a shared aim of understanding the meaning people attribute to experiences in their lives. It has been defined as an ‘interpretive approach concerned with understanding the meanings which people attach to actions, decisions, beliefs, values within their social world’ (Ritchie and
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
Edited by: Penny Bee, Helen Brooks, Patrick Callaghan and Karina Lovell
This handbook is written for patients and members of the public who want to understand more about the approaches, methods and language used by health-services researchers. Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is now a requirement of most major health-research programmes, and this book is designed to equip these individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary for meaningful participation. Edited by award-winning mental-health researchers, the book has been produced in partnership with mental-health-service users and carers with experience of research involvement. It includes personal reflections from these individuals alongside detailed information on quantitative, qualitative and health-economics research methods, and comprehensively covers all the basics needed for large-scale health research projects: systematic reviews; research design and analysis using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; health economics; research ethics; impact and dissemination. This book was developed during a five-year research programme funded by the UK’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) called Enhancing the Quality of User Involved Care Planning in Mental Health Services (EQUIP). The handbook clearly outlines research practices, and gives an insight into how public and patient representatives can be involved in them and shape decisions. Each chapter ends with a reflective exercise, and there are also some suggested sources of additional reading. People who get involved in health research as experts from experience now have a textbook to support their research involvement journey.
Results of the Charité Human Remains Project
Holger Stoecker and Andreas Winkelmann
From 2010 to 2013 the Charité Human Remains Project researched the provenance of the remains of fifty-seven men and women from the then colony of German South West Africa. They were collected during German colonial rule, especially but not only during the colonial war 1904–8. The remains were identified in anthropological collections of academic institutions in Berlin. The article describes the history of these collections, the aims, methods and interdisciplinary format of provenance research as well as its results and finally the restitutions of the remains to Namibia in 2011 and 2014.
T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson and H.E. Carney
In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis, short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts. Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair
, ignored or not measured. It also privileges presentism. As Jeff Crisp rather pithily observed, over the course of any emergency, the sector ‘can be guaranteed to describe it as an “unprecedented crisis”’ ( Crisp, 2016 ). Description of the Project We developed ‘Humanitarian History: Past Practice into Future Policy’, a project funded by a New Foundations Grant from the Irish Research Council in 2017, from conversations about these issues. Our aim was to find a method that would allow humanitarians to integrate historical reflection into their work practices and
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye
structures in Liberia; indirect mediation to chiefs in Sierra Leone. Inspired by the extended-case-study method developed by the Manchester School ( Gluckman, 1940 ), we illuminate our ethnography by paying attention to the long history of the relationship between power and population. The cases are presented chronologically in order to align with the history of the West Africa epidemic. In the first case, Sylvain Landry B. Faye details a case from Kolobengou, Guinea, in which Ministry of Health efforts to mobilise traditional and political elites clashed with locally
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Holling’s often quoted article on ecological resilience is a critique of equilibrium theory based upon research on predator/prey relations in the wild ( Holling, 1973 ). 5 In 2010, for example, the UK government established a Behavioural Insights Team (also known as the Nudge Unit). Since 2014, it has existed as a ‘social purpose company’ that is partly owned by the Cabinet Office, its employees and the data-innovation charity Nesta. See, http://www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk/ 6 Except for limited pattern
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
. There are various criticisms levelled at qualitative analysis including issues relating to validity, reliability and credibility. Researchers can address these through a range of methods including triangulation of data, member validation, careful sampling and transparency of approach. The themes resulting from this form of analysis can illuminate participants’ meanings, actions and social contexts relating to the phenomena under consideration. Learning objectives By the end of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand what qualitative data is and how it can
Lessons from case studies from the South and North
Rajesh Tandon and Edward T. Jackson
knowledge. This interplay of academic and non-academic partners helps to produce new knowledge which neither partner had before. Such a perspective in these partnerships respected the active engagement of community partners in knowledge production, not mere ‘consumers’ – and passive beneficiaries – of knowledge and related services offered by academic partners. Participatory methods are at the core of successful community–university research partnerships. The Southern cases underscore the central role that participatory methods for inquiry and engagement play in the
. The project adopted a community-based participatory research framework and employed several methods, including a literature review, interviews and focus groups for data collection. This way of working together was chosen because it is reflective of the values that partners bring to the project and is also an important acknowledgment of cultural values important to project partners. In the words of Pauline Waterfall, ‘this process was a respectful cultural interpretation, based on our traditional ways of doing and being – to embrace the individual and bring it back