Editors: Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.

The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts

9 Open systems and regional innovation: the resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts 1 Michael H. Best Introduction The Boston area has the highest concentration of colleges and universities, research institutes and hospitals of any place in the world. The plethora of graduate research programmes suggested that the industrial future of Massachusetts was secure in the emerging knowledge economy of the late twentieth century. However, the research intensity of the region has not insulated the state from the vicissitudes of the business cycle. For example, after

in Market relations and the competitive process
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already noted, Turkey’s desire to keep its relations with Russia on an even keel acted as a constant constraint on its policies, and was one of the reasons it failed to become the dominant power in the region. Russia, though forced to surrender its Asian empire, following the Soviet Union’s disintegration, did not abandon its interest in the area. For one thing, Moscow could not afford to ignore any strategic, economic or even religious developments, in what it termed its “near abroad,” that might spill over and have a negative effect on Russia. For another, Moscow

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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Or how to make the Armenian corpses disappear

two days, 11 and 12 January 1916 (the gravediggers, recruited from the ranks of the deportees, were allowed to stay with their families until the camps were shut down). The consul, Rössler, stated in a report dated 9 February that 1,029 people died in two days in the same camp.48 Of the two main deportation routes on which the concentration camps were located, the first, Mosul–Baghdad, had the camp of Ras ul-Ayn, to the east of Urfa and to the south of Dyarbakir, on the borders of Syria and of Mesopotamia, in a particularly desert region. It had the advantage of

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French public and, by the same token, to enhance his waning popularity at home, especially with the clerical party and Catholic public opinion, which was incensed by his recent stance in support of Italian unification (one of the outcomes being the dissolution of the Papal States). 71 More generally, Syria and Lebanon were at the centre of an arc between the British route to India and the Straits route to the Black Sea, a region of French–British rivalry for

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Learning from the case of Kosovo

to have gone towards funding the armed resistance in Kosovo (Hislope, 2002: 38; Makarenko, 2004). Of course, historically, Kosovo rests in the middle of a drugs trading route that sees drug travel from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkey before making their way across the Balkans and into Western Europe (Stefavnova, 2004). The smuggling of drugs through this region cannot be seen simply as a function of the wars and the actions of the KLA. Besides these illicit forms of funding, the war effort was also largely supported through donations from the Albanian Diaspora

in Building a peace economy?
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causation to account for the continuing weak presence of the UK in the software product segments of the global market. In the final chapter, Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The chapter addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved. The core of the explanation is that a new model of business had to

in Market relations and the competitive process
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia

agenda.51 Prior to the September 11 2001 attacks on the United States, conditions favouring a regional concert system were largely in place in the Eurasian area. The United States, Russia and China appeared prepared to sustain an informal triangular framework for relations among major regional actors. Of these countries, currently none can exercise complete hegemony over the Eurasian area. While American influence ascended in 2001–2, Washington’s interests in the region are transitory and limited to counterterrorism and transit routes for oil rather than issue

in Limiting institutions?
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. Minatom and Gosatomnadzor have their representations in the region, but the ‘balance of power’ between federal and regional offices differs from what we found in fisheries management. While important decisions in fisheries management 128 International environmental agreements in Russia are made by federal agencies located in the region and normally sanctioned by the federal offices, the latter seem to have a greater thrust in the nuclear safety area or, put differently, the agencies located in the region are less autonomous in nuclear safety issues than in fisheries

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approach to development with some long-standing laissez-faire principles. Two wider political issues made Colonial Office attempts to persuade the Caribbean colonies to follow its preferred routes to industrialisation difficult, however. The increasing political autonomy of governments in the Caribbean region meant that Britain could not merely instruct its West Indian possessions to follow its edicts. In addition, it became clear that in the post-war world, the US hoped to shape development across the Caribbean along lines that it found conducive to its own interests

in Science at the end of empire