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A history of child development in Britain

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

possible. We are also especially grateful to Caroline Abu Sa’Da and Philippe Calain at the Research Unit on Humanitarian Stakes and Practices (UREPH), MSF-Switzerland for their unwavering support at the time of writing as well as Arjan Hehenkamp and Bertrand Taithe for their invaluable suggestions on an earlier version of this article. 2 This article’s main source is the field study and internal report ‘Medical Care under Fire in South Sudan’, by Joanna Kuper, Humanitarian Affairs Officer for MSF-Holland in South Sudan from April to December 2014. Information regarding

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

predicament of ‘psychotic’ children who did not fit into prior classification systems. In 1963, the term ‘autistic’ was beginning to be used frequently in administrative literature, following the lead of parent campaigners. In 1963, the Standing Health Advisory Committee was sent a memorandum from SAC written by John and Lorna Wing of the Social Psychiatry Research Unit at the

in The metamorphosis of autism
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Perceiving, describing and modelling child development

Occupational Psychiatry Research Unit, later renamed the Social Psychiatry Research Unit in 1958, which was funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC). It was there that researchers broke new ground in social-scientific and epidemiological work on psychological problems. This book argues that the intellectual climate created at this institution built on significant research agendas in British sociology and

in The metamorphosis of autism

, digital forum discussions, social media posts and video recordings. For example, when interviewing participants about their experience of living with a chronic condition, you may want to ask them to capture their experience using photographs. These can be treated as a unit of data and analysed thematically in addition to the transcripts from interviews, and presented to support interpretations. (Figure 27) 112 BEE (RESEARCH) PRINT.indd 112 11/05/2018 16:16 A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers Figure 27 Example of photographic data

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers

and intervene in social life, but this never took wider instinct theory, or the unconscious mind, for granted. In the summer of 1948, the Medical Research Council (MRC) provided finances to create a separate unit to ‘investigate psychiatric problems in industry’. 10 The approach was always more process-driven, rather than aimed at exploring the depths of desire and the moral

in The metamorphosis of autism

‘autoerotism’ and ‘autism’ in attempting to understand the most significant stages of children’s psychological development, researchers at the Social Psychiatry research unit studied ‘autism’ as an unknown category that had the promise to elucidate the most significant stages of socialisation and to explain the outcome of both social and sensory deprivation. Instead of focusing on

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)

diagnosis as merely ‘neurotypical’. 3 The neurodiversity movement has led to a shift in approach as researchers concede to a growing and increasingly powerful distinctive discourse of autism rights, social justice and reflection on the creative aspects of autism and early infantile development. Recent years have seen the autism rights movement take new turns in critical reflection. New initiatives have

in The metamorphosis of autism

Lewis’s insistence that all psychiatric trainees spend six months training in child psychiatry encouraged this debate. By the 1980s, international doctors and social workers were regularly training and working at the Brixton Child Guidance Clinic and by 1984, fortnightly meetings were held on ‘racism awareness and multi-ethnicity’. 7 Some researchers, including Rutter

in The metamorphosis of autism
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Achievement and self-doubt

speciality into a major presence in contemporary medicine’; Neil Kessel, joint author of a classic work on Alcoholism, built up the Department of Psychiatry. Research into the process of ageing was designed, not so much to prolong life, as to maintain ‘vigour to the end of the life span’, for example by improving memory in old age. A centre for treating alcoholism arose within the hospital, where medical, psychological and social help would all be at hand. Matters such as the development of tolerance to alcohol were candidates for scientific investigation, as were methods

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90