A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

the decision to focus on a single case study (of humanitarian intervention in Somalia since the 1990s) and to focus our activities on a workshop format. This approach, we felt, would concentrate our discussions and make tangible the lessons learnt more effectively than attempting to find answers to such far-reaching questions in a global context. Somalia was selected because of its pivotal role in redefining humanitarian aid in the post-Cold War era. The crisis in the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada and Róisín Read

the same conclusions in a series of studies on humanitarian space ( Collinson and Elhawary, 2012 ) and humanitarian negotiations, particularly in Afghanistan, Sudan and Somalia ( Jackson, 2014 ; Jackson and Giustozzi, 2012 ). In 2014, Larissa Fast published Aid in Danger ( Fast, 2014 ), a timely book reminding humanitarian organisations of their responsibility to work on internal vulnerabilities, such as individual behaviour or organisational lapses. Fast’s main intention was to challenge what she

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

and State Development in the United States ’, Studies in American Political Development , 20 , 18 – 44 . Kiser , M. ( 2013 ), ‘ How Somali Pirates and Terrorists Made Bank off Two Western Hostages ’, Vocativ , 10 : 24 ED, http://goo.gl/n7q5CE (accessed 28 June 2019) . Lapan , H. E. and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

on the periphery of conflicts to the heart of them. Yugoslavia, Chechnya, Rwanda and the entire Great Lakes region of Africa became particularly high-risk areas for aid workers. It was during the intervention in Somalia in 1992 that the interface between security, operational procedures and humanitarian principles became central for MdM. The political and security climate at the time confined NGOs to urban centres across Somalia, while the looting of humanitarian convoys

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

to see that the (post)colonial run-up to genocide was a story of too much intervention, even in the name of democracy. During my doctoral research, I rediscovered the case of Somaliland. A self-declared independent republic in the north-western corner of Somalia, Somaliland had declined US and UN interventions at the beginning of the 1990s, apart from specific assistance (the clean-up of landmines, for example). Instead, it took care of its peace-building process internally and with its diaspora. Over the years, even though the international

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

multinational military task force into Somalia, with the stated aim of protecting relief operations. These humanitarian wars, and others that followed during the 1990s, were waged not only to respond to a perceived evil but also to define good and evil and the limits of acceptable behaviour ( Fiori, 2018 ). Other Western governments also now looked to humanitarian agencies as allies in the liberal transformation of the developing world. During the Cold War, humanitarian NGOs had generally been limited to operating in countries under Western tutelage, but

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

. References to ‘before’ have been heard since the mid-1990s, in the wake of the Bosnian War and the Tutsi genocide. The mass killings in Bosnia and Rwanda – coming on the heels of the Somali and Liberian civil wars – created a landscape of widespread violence, ‘anarchic conflicts’ in which not even humanitarian workers or journalists were safe. People stressed the contrast with earlier conflicts, which were kept in check by the superpowers, making the combatants accessible, at

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

scale of human suffering remains prodigious and that for as much good as they do, humanitarians frequently do little in terms of a net reduction in suffering and misery (think Haiti, Syria, Somalia, DRC, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, South Sudan). Much suffering – private violence, civil and gang wars, state predation, poverty, insecurity – is untouched by humanitarian intervention of any kind, yet this is everyday reality for billions of people. One function of the entire humanitarian enterprise might be to obscure root causes and allow those who, en

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

to offend brutally the opinion of moral people in their own or other countries’. 2 The four interventions were successful in stopping the ‘effusion of blood’. They were not merely better than nothing (as in the case of Somalia today), too late (Rwanda) or leading to inordinate destruction, refugees and civilian deaths (Kosovo/Serbia). The insurgents themselves sought foreign armed intervention to save them. With the exception of the Cubans

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Colonial body into postcolonial narrative
Elleke Boehmer

demonstrates in his (now tragically prescient) novel of Somali identity Maps (1986), within the symbolic make-up of the male nationalist, pride of place is held by a great mother ideal, a multimammia figure.15 The hero Askar’s entry into manhood coincides with his discovery of himself as national son to Mother Somalia: something which began with the pain of a rite had ended in the joy of a greater self-discovery, one in which he held on to the milky breast of a common mother that belonged to him as much as anyone else. A generous mother, a manybreasted mother, a many

in Stories of women