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Sweden and ecological governance

Straddling the fence

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

Sweden is seen as a forerunner in environmental and ecological policy. This book is about policies and strategies for ecologically rational governance, and uses the Swedish case study to ask whether or not it is possible to move from a traditional environmental policy to a broad, integrated pursuit of sustainable development, as illustrated through the ‘Sustainable Sweden’ programme. It begins by looking at the spatial dimensions of ecological governance, and goes on to consider the integration and effectiveness of sustainable development policies. The book analyses the tension between democracy and sustainable development, which has a broader relevance beyond the Swedish model, to other nation states as well as the European Union as a whole. It offers the latest word in advanced implementation of sustainable development.

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Sweden

Another awkward partner?

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Karl Magnus Johansson

2444Ch16 3/12/02 16 2:06 pm Page 369 Karl Magnus Johansson Sweden: another awkward partner? Introduction: reluctant yet faithful Scholars of the European Union must lift the lid off the ‘black box’ of domestic politics to understand the behaviour of Member States in the integration processes. In this chapter, we will move inside the Swedish polity by analysing domestic constraints and institutional characteristics. The overarching aim is to capture the fundamentals of Sweden as an EU member, thereby identifying the primary actors involved in the

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Straddling the fence

On the possibility of sustainability and democracy in advanced industrial nations

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

2579Ch8 12/8/03 11:57 AM Page 201 8 Straddling the fence: on the possibility of sustainability and democracy in advanced industrial nations At the heart of this study of Sweden and its efforts to create structures and processes for ecologically rational governance has been the political dilemma posed by sustainable development. Taking as my point of departure the normative question of ‘How are we to govern ourselves so as to value democracy and individual autonomy and still retain the integrity of the commons?’ and by measuring the empirical evidence of

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Where the buck stops

Governmental power and authority in democratic ecological governance

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

2579Ch7 12/8/03 11:56 AM Page 181 7 Where the buck stops: governmental power and authority in democratic ecological governance Ecological governance and the authority of government The preceding chapters analysed what Sweden has done, and how far that country has come, in creating structures and processes of governance for the sustainability of the commons and the autonomy of the individual within the limits of democracy. One conclusion is that while the logic of ecological rationality may seem attractive in terms of sustainability and autonomy when laid

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

-made systems, and thus the problems of scale and coordination in ecological governance, she recommends a spatial web of ‘nested enterprises’. Smaller-scale resource regimes are linked in multiple layers to form larger entities of resource governance (Ostrom 1990:90 ff., 101 f.). Admittedly, Ostrom’s classic study deals above all with singleinterest, single-purpose resource regimes. Ecosystems of some size are, however, usually subjected to multiple, often conflicting 2579Ch2 12/8/03 26 11:47 AM Page 26 Sweden and ecological governance claims and uses. This makes the

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

’. Rapid and dramatic moves in global financial markets can – so is the lesson driven home by the 1992 economic turmoil in Sweden – put pressure on politicians to provide decisions literally ‘within the hour’ to avert a major national crisis. Doing time on earth; politics as ultimately fenced by natural ecocycles This institutionalised political shortsightedness is increasingly challenged. The long-term trends of population growth, water and air pollution, and possibly irrevocable climate change, have created doubts about the sustainability and productivity of the planet

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

and individual autonomy. Only when formulated and implemented in an open, participatory process of democratic decision-making could massive policy changes deeply affecting individual autonomy be considered legitimate and thus politically sustainable. Participation and autonomy for whom: market actors or democratic citizens? As the earlier chapters reveal, ecological governance for sustainability does have important spatial, temporal, cognitive, and integral implications for both the democratic process and its 2579Ch6 12/8/03 150 11:55 AM Page 150 Sweden and

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Lennart J. Lundqvist

2579Ch5 12/8/03 11:54 AM Page 117 5 Governing in common – integration and effectiveness in ecological governance Specialisation or integration. Organising principles of ecological governance for sustainability From environment to sustainable development; the quest for effectiveness and integration The first decades of environmental policy in Sweden were characterised by an amalgamation of different governmental units dealing with aspects of the environmental issue into a recognisable sectoral policy domain. This was how SEPA came to be a specialised agency

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Dimitris Tsarouhas

6 A new Swedish model? Swedish social democracy at the crossroads Dimitris Tsarouhas Introduction Sweden has for a long time been viewed as a paradigmatic case for progressive politics. Swedish social democracy, to which the progressive character of such politics was attributed, could legitimately claim to have mastered the historic task of the revisionist Left: building a societal coalition around the goal of enhancing social welfare for all, while safeguarding the profitability of business and delivering economic growth. When economic crisis hit home in the

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Where the grass is greener

Criteria for ecologically rational governance

Series:

Lennart J. Lundqvist

political answers addressing the full spectrum of sustainable development, and in particular its ecological aspects, are now emerging. Sweden provides an interesting case of development from environmental policy towards ecological governance. In his acceptance speech as the new Leader of Sweden’s Social Democratic Party in March 1996, the then Minister of Finance Göran Persson proclaimed the achievement of an ecologically sustainable society as a new and noble mission for his party. Presenting his Cabinet Policy Platform two weeks later, Prime Minister Persson stated that