Editor: Peter Burnell

Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Open Access (free)

set of states that have seen considerable moves towards 170 AREAS Table 11.1 Freedom House ratings for East Asian countries, 2001–2 Country Burma Cambodia China (PRC) Indonesia Japan Korea (North) Korea (South) Laos Malaysia Mongolia Philippines Singapore Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Political rights Civil liberties Rating Per capita GNP (PPP US$) 7 6 7 3 1 7 2 7 5 2 2 5 1 2 7 7 5 6 4 2 7 2 6 5 3 3 5 2 3 6 NF NF NF PF F NF F NF PF F F PF F F NF 1,500 1,500 4,300 3,000 27,200 1,000 18,000 1,630 9,000 1,770 4,000 24,700 17,200 6,600 2,100 Notes: F = Free; PF

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)

vigorous following the adoption of universal adult franchise at independence – but otherwise the case for democracy in poor countries was mostly neglected. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy and notwithstanding serious human rights abuses. This lesson was taken to heart by the Chinese Communist Party, which began the transition to a market economy in the 1970s, the resulting economic growth thereby enabling the party to

in Democratization through the looking-glass
South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns

transmission route emerges In 1975 studies of 1,000 birth mothers in Taiwan showed that hepatitis B virus could be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. 17 This work suggested that the maternal transmission of the hepatitis virus could be more prevalent in a hepatitis-endemic area than the transmission through sexual contacts or through the use of a contaminated needle. However, maternal transmission had not been proven in

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Issues, debates and an overview of the crisis

September and October, the currencies of Taiwan and Singapore came under intense pressure. While both countries managed to avoid Table 1.1 Rate of currency depreciation 1997–98 (local currency per US dollar) 2 July 1997 End Sept. 1998 Rate of dep. (%) July 1997–Sept. 1998 26.38 2,341.92 24.40 2.57 885.74 43.80 10,638.30 38.99 3.80 1,369.86 66.10 354.30 59.80 47.80 54.70 Philippine peso Indonesian rupiah Thai baht Malaysian ringgit Korean won Source: OECD (1999, 249). 1 The Asian financial crisis full-blown financial crises, both were, nevertheless, forced to

in The Asian financial crisis

consequences of a Sino-American dispute over issues of territorial sovereignty (i.e., the Taiwan question) or the direction of the pipelines from Central Asia? China and the United States are wary of one another’s interests and inten114 2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 115 The geopolitics of Central Asian energy tions in Central Asia, a legacy of their postwar relationship and different conceptions of international order. Real conflicts of interest, which are magnified by mutual misunderstandings and misperceptions, will inevitably complicate the task of developing

in Limiting institutions?
Impact of structural tensions and thresholds

included among the invitees. On the other hand, such geographically eligible countries as Israel, South Africa, South Korea, North Korea and Taiwan were not. The Arab states would not tolerate Israeli participation. South Africa was considered an outcast. Participation of the two Koreas might create political problems for the organisers. And Taiwan could not be invited in China’s presence. 27

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
Post-crisis Asia – economic recovery, September 11, 2001 and the challenges ahead

prices in the first six months of 2001. Although prices have since leveled off, the potential oil-price instability (compounded by the uncertainty in the Middle East) remains a major concern. However, the price-rise was something of a mixed blessing. It has worked in favor of net exporters of oil such as Indonesia and Malaysia, but against net importers, such as South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines and Thailand.8 Korea is more vulnerable to rising 344 Conclusion: after September 11, 2001 international crude oil prices than most other Asian countries. Clearly, Korea

in The Asian financial crisis
A review and manifesto

(2000), developing a distinction between extraordinary and ordinary consumption, identifies the importance of the social relations of purchase. His evidence from Taiwan shows that for certain types of ‘extraordinary’ purchase people consult their extended social networks, asking for advice and relinquishing all personal discretion in making the decision to the person in the network best qualified to make a judgement. Not only are extraordinary purchases delegated, so are many routine ones, which are typically made by less Social mechanisms generating demand 15

in Innovation by demand

and a government capable of engaging in relations with other states). Alternatively, the constitutive theory maintains that an entity becomes sovereign when others recognize it as such (see Carter et al. 2007 : 448). Neither framework – each a kind of ideal type – is wholly determinative in practice. Contrary to the declaratory theory, entities such as Taiwan may satisfy the

in Recognition and Global Politics