Open Access (free)
A tradition of indirection

This book examines the satirical poetry of Edmund Spenser and argues for his importance as a model and influence for younger poets writing satires in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The book focuses on reading satirical texts of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in relation to one another, with specific attention to the role that Edmund Spenser plays in that literary subsystem. The book connects key Spenserian texts in The Shepheardes Calender and the Complaints volume with poems by a range of authors in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, including Joseph Hall, Thomas Nashe, Tailboys Dymoke, Thomas Middleton, and George Wither to advance the thesis that Spenser was seen by his contemporaries as highly relevant to satire in Elizabethan England. For scholars of satire, the book offers a fuller discussion and theorization of the type of satire that Spenser wrote, “indirect satire,” than has been provided elsewhere. A theory of indirect satire benefits not just Spenser studies, but satire studies as well. For scholars of English Renaissance satire in particular, who have tended to focus on the formal verse satires of the 1590s to the exclusion of attention to more indirect forms such as Spenser’s, this book is a corrective, an invitation to recognize the importance of a style of satire that has received little attention.

Open Access (free)
Imitation of Spenserian satire

”: Michael Drayton, William Browne, and George Wither. A poet who wished to write satirical verse in 1600 might rightly conclude from the named works in the Bishops’ Ban that formal verse satire was an unsafe mode for expressing satirical meanings. The additional knowledge that the still-living Queen Elizabeth or the stillpowerful Robert Cecil, son of Spenser’s enemy Lord Burghley, might continue to take exception to satirical beast fables certainly combined to create a chilling effect on the production of satirical poetry in the first years of the seventeenth century

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)

Spenser as an inspiration to the young poet Middleton before he became the dramatist Middleton. The chapter closes by briefly contrasting the pervasive Spenserianism of the young Middleton with John Donne’s perhaps faddish use of animal fable in his Metempsychosis; Poêma Satyricon. The final chapter looks at two moments in the early seventeenth century: Michael Drayton’s response to the change of monarchs in two poems, To the Maiestie of King James from 1603 and The Owle from 1604, and George Wither’s self-fashioning as a Spenserian satirist in a series of four texts a

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
Quentin Crisp as Orlando’s Elizabeth I

Elizabeth has been undressed by her ladies-in-waiting and helped into bed, she and Orlando have an intimate conversation. During this encounter, Orlando is advised by the Queen: ‘Do not fade; do not wither; do not grow old.’ And so he doesn’t: the remainder of the film depicts various episodes from Orlando’s life over several centuries. Halfway through it, Swinton’s character changes from male to female. Looking in

in The British monarchy on screen
Open Access (free)

Shepheards Pipe leads on to the sustained pastoralism of William Browne’s overtly Spenserian Britannia’s ­Pastorals, no less than to the varied social and moral critique of the prolific George Wither. Needless to say, Spenser’s influence is not confined to the Spenserians. We need to retrace our steps to the late sixteenth century, starting with the other major influence on English Renaissance pastoral: the work of Sir Philip Sidney. The undoubted ‘Sidney cult’ (however we assess it) during his brief life acquired new and greater force when his works began to be

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance
Open Access (free)

. (Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto , 1848) No conception of anarchism is further from the truth than that which regards it as an extreme form of democracy. Democracy advocates the sovereignty of the people. anarchism advocates the sovereignty of the person. (George Woodcock

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Agency and selfhood at stake

infants or children wither, shrivel up, fail to thrive, and die. The recognition that many women accused of witchcraft (at least at Augsburg) were lying-in maids charged by the mothers of babies who got sick or failed to thrive has helped to build a more nuanced historiography relating to witch-hunting. 12 Female physicality had other implications. Roper speculated that in consequence of the forced intimacy between torturer and

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)

advantage of individual liberty. New Liberalism had a powerful influence on the Liberal Party in Britain throughout the twentieth century. In Lloyd George’s ‘People’s Budget’ (1909) a National Insurance scheme was introduced to cover sickness, unemployment and pensions. Moreover, it was very largely absorbed into the other main parties so that, although the Liberal Party’s political fortunes languished

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Marianne Moore

presenting Moore, conflating as it does intellectual curiosity with acquisition, and privileging matters of procedure over questions of form and technique, significantly diminishes her sensibility, and in the process misses the point of her enthusiasm. To get closer to the point, one might, perhaps, think in terms of the question with which George Oppen opens his sequence ‘Five Poems about Poetry’. ‘The question is,’ Oppen writes, ‘how does one hold an apple / Who likes apples?’1 This is a difficult question; not a question it is hard to understand, maybe, but a question

in Enthusiast!
Open Access (free)

9: Spinster George Romney’s portrait of a ‘spinstress’ in Kenwood House is a bit misleading. The subject, Romney’s muse Emma Hart, later Lady Hamilton, was not actually a spinner – this was just one of many romantic and theatrical poses she held for the painter. Nor was she a spinster. By the time she sat for Romney for this painting in 1784–85, she had already been employed in a ‘temple of health’ (possibly a brothel), become pregnant at the age of sixteen and been for a few years the mistress of the Hon. Charles Greville, second son of the Earl of Warwick

in Austerity baby