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British Army sisters and soldiers in the Second World War
Author: Jane Brooks

Negotiating nursing explores how the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (Q.A.s) salvaged men within the sensitive gender negotiations of what should and could constitute nursing work and where that work could occur. The book argues that the Q.A.s, an entirely female force during the Second World War, were essential to recovering men physically, emotionally and spiritually from the battlefield and for the war, despite concerns about their presence on the frontline. The book maps the developments in nurses’ work as the Q.A.s created a legitimate space for themselves in war zones and established nurses’ position as the expert at the bedside. Using a range of personal testimony the book demonstrates how the exigencies of war demanded nurses alter the methods of nursing practice and the professional boundaries in which they had traditionally worked, in order to care for their soldier-patients in the challenging environments of a war zone. Although they may have transformed practice, their position in war was highly gendered and it was gender in the post-war era that prevented their considerable skills from being transferred to the new welfare state, as the women of Britain were returned to the home and hearth. The aftermath of war may therefore have augured professional disappointment for some nursing sisters, yet their contribution to nursing knowledge and practice was, and remains, significant.

Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

. References to ‘before’ have been heard since the mid-1990s, in the wake of the Bosnian War and the Tutsi genocide. The mass killings in Bosnia and Rwanda – coming on the heels of the Somali and Liberian civil wars – created a landscape of widespread violence, ‘anarchic conflicts’ in which not even humanitarian workers or journalists were safe. People stressed the contrast with earlier conflicts, which were kept in check by the superpowers, making the combatants accessible, at

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

wound. But it requires specialist post-op nursing care to make sure it doesn’t become infected. So, first you need an operating microscope, which you’re not going to take with you, plus it’s complicated, and you need specialist nurses for the post-op period. So, many years ago I worked in Sarajevo, where they had a plastic-surgery centre. Sarajevo was a leading plastic-surgery centre and lots of war wounds needed attention. But in the war they didn’t have all the specialist staff to look

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

unchallenged. Historical divisions between Americo- and African-Liberians have marked the fight for power and socio-political identities in Liberia ( Ellis, 1999 ). During the political instability of the 1980s and the fourteen years of civil war (1989–2003), these distinctions became exacerbated, with the legitimacy of ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ forms of power becoming instrumentalised and questioned ( Fuest, 2010 ). Youths’ and women’s agency in navigating the conflict (as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

economies of the global South, especially the role of post-humanitarianism in governing global precarity. The question of social reproduction is important here. Encompassing the reproduction of human beings as a biological species, social reproduction is an organic part of capitalism. It includes birthing and caring for the young, sick and old while maintaining family, friendship and wider community linkages, identities and moralities ( Fraser, 2016 ). Traditionally unpaid and cast as women’s work, although men have always done some, without these taken

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

-IO regained control of the area, grass-roots rebel recruiters were following a different logic in seizing MSF medical staff from that of the opposition’s Commissioner, who released them on the MSF project coordinator’s request. The work of Stathis Kalyvas may be a useful reference here. In The Logic of Violence in Civil War , Kalyvas emphasises that ‘violence is never a simple reflection of the optimal strategy of its users’ ( Kalyvas, 2006 : 388): the joint product of interactions between

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

disillusioned with the truncated horizons of the New Left and resigned to the triumph, for a generation or two, of welfare capitalism ( Meiksins Wood, 1995 ). Before this, global humanitarianism had been a largely religious exercise, an extension of Christian ministry ( Barnett, 2011 ), while human rights barely registered on the world stage ( Moyn, 2010 ). From the 1970s on, the humanist international became a place where disillusioned rebels could continue to work, albeit in a new idiom, for those who suffered. They ceased working to any great extent on their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

vulnerability and risk in protracted displacement. 7 Critiques of ‘self-reliance’ are relevant in many ways when examining both the US’s decision to defund UNRWA, and UNRWA’s operational responses to these cuts. Firstly, UNRWA has, to an extent, ensured the ‘self-reliance’ of tens of thousands of Palestinians since it is an agency that both provides services and assistance and employs 30,000 Palestinian refugees who work full-time to support other members of their community ( UNRWA, 2016 ). These employees embody the potential for a form of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

and the Protection of War Victims . Oxford : Macmillan . Carpenter , R. C. ( 2003 ), ‘ “Women and Children First”: Gender, Norms, and Humanitarian Evacuation in the Balkans 1991–95 ’, International Organization , 57 : 4 , 661 – 94 . doi: 10.1017/S002081830357401X . Collinson , S. and Duffield

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

History Security-risk management has long been a concern at Médecins du Monde (MdM), as it was for other humanitarian agencies operating at the height of the Cold War. However, it was in the 1990s that security had to address its own set of issues. The collapse of the Soviet bloc and the post-Cold War conflicts created safety issues for humanitarian agencies: a booming aid sector led to an increase in exposure, together with a trend for humanitarian organisations to shift from working

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs