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British Army sisters and soldiers in the Second World War

Negotiating nursing explores how the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service (Q.A.s) salvaged men within the sensitive gender negotiations of what should and could constitute nursing work and where that work could occur. The book argues that the Q.A.s, an entirely female force during the Second World War, were essential to recovering men physically, emotionally and spiritually from the battlefield and for the war, despite concerns about their presence on the frontline. The book maps the developments in nurses’ work as the Q.A.s created a legitimate space for themselves in war zones and established nurses’ position as the expert at the bedside. Using a range of personal testimony the book demonstrates how the exigencies of war demanded nurses alter the methods of nursing practice and the professional boundaries in which they had traditionally worked, in order to care for their soldier-patients in the challenging environments of a war zone. Although they may have transformed practice, their position in war was highly gendered and it was gender in the post-war era that prevented their considerable skills from being transferred to the new welfare state, as the women of Britain were returned to the home and hearth. The aftermath of war may therefore have augured professional disappointment for some nursing sisters, yet their contribution to nursing knowledge and practice was, and remains, significant.

Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

resonated favourably both in the halls of power and in public opinion, and imperial France seemed particularly open to it. The first president of the new humanitarian society was a former officer in Napoleon III’s army: Swiss general Guillaume-Henri Dufour. This serves as a reminder that the laws of war ( jus in bello ) are first and foremost the business of the belligerents – the political powers – and that the terms of humanitarian conventions have always been negotiated by plenipotentiaries and generals from the signatory states. Such laws are not just the work of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement

central government, but they called for reform ( Fanthorpe, 2006 ). On the eve of the Ebola outbreak, therefore, chiefs maintained their power but it was not unchallenged. Historical divisions between Americo- and African-Liberians have marked the fight for power and socio-political identities in Liberia ( Ellis, 1999 ). During the political instability of the 1980s and the fourteen years of civil war (1989–2003), these distinctions became exacerbated, with the legitimacy of ‘traditional’ and ‘modern’ forms of power becoming instrumentalised and questioned ( Fuest, 2010

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

economies of the global South, especially the role of post-humanitarianism in governing global precarity. The question of social reproduction is important here. Encompassing the reproduction of human beings as a biological species, social reproduction is an organic part of capitalism. It includes birthing and caring for the young, sick and old while maintaining family, friendship and wider community linkages, identities and moralities ( Fraser, 2016 ). Traditionally unpaid and cast as women’s work, although men have always done some, without these taken

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

the MSF project coordinator’s request. The work of Stathis Kalyvas may be a useful reference here. In The Logic of Violence in Civil War , Kalyvas emphasises that ‘violence is never a simple reflection of the optimal strategy of its users’ ( Kalyvas, 2006 : 388): the joint product of interactions between rival political elites, and between these elites and local groups, down to individuals with their own interests, violence defies the maximisation logics of any given set of actors. Medical aid practitioners must be aware of these dynamics when making sense of – and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

disillusioned with the truncated horizons of the New Left and resigned to the triumph, for a generation or two, of welfare capitalism ( Meiksins Wood, 1995 ). Before this, global humanitarianism had been a largely religious exercise, an extension of Christian ministry ( Barnett, 2011 ), while human rights barely registered on the world stage ( Moyn, 2010 ). From the 1970s on, the humanist international became a place where disillusioned rebels could continue to work, albeit in a new idiom, for those who suffered. They ceased working to any great extent on their

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

vulnerability and risk in protracted displacement. 7 Critiques of ‘self-reliance’ are relevant in many ways when examining both the US’s decision to defund UNRWA, and UNRWA’s operational responses to these cuts. Firstly, UNRWA has, to an extent, ensured the ‘self-reliance’ of tens of thousands of Palestinians since it is an agency that both provides services and assistance and employs 30,000 Palestinian refugees who work full-time to support other members of their community ( UNRWA, 2016 ). These employees embody the potential for a form of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

Displacement ’, report commissioned by Concern Worldwide. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33905.94562/1 . Bradley , M. ( forthcoming ), ‘ Unintended Consequences of Adjacency Claims: The Function and Dysfunction of Analogies between Refugee Protection and IDP Protection in the Work of UNHCR ’, Global Governance , 25 : 3 . Bugnion , F. ( 2003 ), The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Protection of War Victims . Oxford : Macmillan . Carpenter , R. C. ( 2003 ), ‘ “Women and Children First”: Gender, Norms, and Humanitarian Evacuation in the Balkans 1991

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

History Security-risk management has long been a concern at Médecins du Monde (MdM), as it was for other humanitarian agencies operating at the height of the Cold War. However, it was in the 1990s that security had to address its own set of issues. The collapse of the Soviet bloc and the post-Cold War conflicts created safety issues for humanitarian agencies: a booming aid sector led to an increase in exposure, together with a trend for humanitarian organisations to shift from working on the periphery of conflicts to the heart of them. Yugoslavia, Chechnya

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

famine in India in 1876–8, a British military official took a series of photographs depicting extremely emaciated men, women and children, and these had a profound impact on the way British elites and audiences mobilised and responded to the famine ( Twomey, 2015 ). Twomey argues that this crisis introduced the practice of displaying shocking images as ‘evidence’ of bodily suffering and deprivation that might prompt humanitarian action ( ibid .: 52). For a photo or video footage to ‘work’, however, the audience must trust its creator. As

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs