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Democratic inclusion

Rainer Bauböck in dialogue

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Edited by: Rainer Bauböck

This book addresses the major theoretical and practical issues of the forms of citizenship and access to citizenship in different types of polity, and the specification and justification of rights of non-citizen immigrants as well as non-resident citizens. It also addresses the conditions under which norms governing citizenship can legitimately vary. The book discusses the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). They complement each other because they serve distinct purposes of democratic inclusion. The book proposes that democratic inclusion principles specify a relation between an individual or group that has an inclusion claim and a political community that aims to achieve democratic legitimacy for its political decisions and institutions. It contextualizes the principle of stakeholder inclusion, which provides the best answer to the question of democratic boundaries of membership, by applying it to polities of different types. The book distinguishes state, local and regional polities and argues that they differ in their membership character. It examines how a principle of stakeholder inclusion applies to polities of different types. The book illustrates the difference between consensual and automatic modes of inclusion by considering the contrast between birthright acquisition of citizenship, which is generally automatic, and naturalization, which requires an application.

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David Owen

's argument that the all citizenship stakeholders (ACS) principle is the best available principle for determining the composition of the citizenry but, in a particular and specific sense, reject the claim that it thereby also demarcates the demos. Demos principles and citizenship It is an important strength of Bauböck's argument that his account articulates complementary relations of the all affected interests (AAI) principle, the

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Democratic inclusion

A pluralist theory of citizenship

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Rainer Bauböck

allow for identifying contexts where mixed principles apply or where polities are of mixed types. The core normative argument of this essay is developed in section 3 , where I discuss the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). I claim that these principles are not rivals but friends. They complement each other because they serve distinct purposes of democratic

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Iseult Honohan

account that gives due consideration to a dense array of both normative and empirical factors at multiple levels. I simply sketch the lineaments of an all subjected account of the demos that provides for republican self-government. This aims to redeem the power of the all subjected principle to define the demos, and suggests that there is more continuity between the demos based on this principle and that referring to citizenship stakeholders

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Rainer Bauböck

Honohan's interpretation of ASC that aims to blunt the differentiation from the all citizenship stakeholders (ACS) principle that I have tried to sharpen. According to Honohan, “the all subjected account … may define membership of the demos more clearly on the basis of a single principle, but the account of citizenship needs to be pluralist, mainly by building in a temporal cushion with respect to subjection” (p. 157). But she

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The boundaries of “democratic inclusion”

Some questions for Rainer Bauböck

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Joseph H. Carens

, empirical researchers and policy-makers alike. Those gifts are clearly on display here as Bauböck explores the virtues and limitations of three different principles of democratic inclusion: all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). Bauböck argues that the three principles complement one another, with each providing legitimation for a different set of democratic institutions and practices

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Peter J. Spiro

system that (mostly) slots individuals into one or two but not all of many different polities. It takes account of movement among states, liberal autonomy values, the continued dominance of territorially based governance and the possibility (up to a point) of non-territorial identity. Stakeholder citizenship promises a taste that's just right for the new world. The key, of course, is how the stake behind stakeholder

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Will Kymlicka and Sue Donaldson

Rainer Bauböck's essay argues persuasively that our account of democratic inclusion needs to be more complex than is usually recognized. Whereas most authors attempt to identify a single fundamental principle of democratic inclusion – whether it is the all affected interests principle or the all subjected to coercion principle or some social membership/stakeholder principle – Bauböck shows that there are different types

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David Morrison

argues that promoting equality means more than merely promoting equality of opportunity 13 and that equality should be seen as inclusiveness. 14 He explains: ‘Inclusion in its broadest sense refers to citizenship, to the civil and political rights and obligations that all members of a society should have not just formally but as a reality of their lives.’ 15 It is notable that

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Monstrous materialities

Ash dieback and plant biosecurity in Britain

Judith Tsouvalis

fortification of boundaries (Nerlich et al., 2009), and that in some countries biosecurity politics are in the process of engineering a new kind of social identity: ‘biosecure citizenship’ (Barker, 2010). From a theoretical standpoint, biosecurity discourse can be understood as forming part of the broader trend in Western societies of being risk-averse and overanxious about health, safety and security. Beck’s (1992) Risk Society thesis, Foucault’s (2004, 2007) biopolitics and Latour’s (2003) version of Beck’s thesis using actor-network theory have all served here as