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Past Practice into Future Policy

A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector

Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

. ( 2018 ), ‘ Oxfam and the Problem of NGO Aid Appraisal in the 1960s ’, Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development , 9 : 1 , 1 – 18 , doi: 10.1353/hum.2018.0000 . Korff , V. P. , Balbo , N. , Mills , M. , Heyse , L. and Wittek , R. ( 2015 ), ‘ The Impact of Humanitarian Context Conditions and Individual Characteristics on Aid Worker Retention ’, Disasters , 39 : 3 , 522 – 45 , doi: 10.1111/disa.12119 . Lewis , D. ( 2009 ), ‘ International Development and the “Perpetual Present”: Anthropological

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Post-Humanitarianism

Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

Mark Duffield

downturn, rather than problematise informality, developmentalists now praise it as an authentic and valued expression of community mutuality and gender inclusion ( Becker, 2004 ). Through such progressive reinscription, the informal sector has been repackaged through projects like ‘Bottom of the Pyramid’ economics ( Prahalad, 2006 ) or ‘inclusive capitalism’ as an eligible and eager development and business partner. Consider, for example, UNDP’s (2008) homely appraisal of NGO-assisted informality as a low-cost welfare infrastructure for

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Lehman Brothers

A Crisis of Value

Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

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Oonagh McDonald

inspire confidence in the valuation of their real estate assets, especially in 2007 and 2008, when prices in the real estate market were falling. Recognized procedures have been developed by standard-setting bodies for valuation in the USA and in the UK. International standards are in the process of being established by the International Valuation Standards Council, a long-time partner of the Appraisal Foundation. This chapter draws on the procedures as set out by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors in London, and the Appraisal Foundation

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Oonagh McDonald

These are the key points arising from the Examiner's analysis of Lehman's approach to valuation. The purpose of this chapter is to detail the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. Interagency Appraisal and Valuation Guidelines These are the guidelines which applied before 2008. They include Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act 1989, which required the agencies to provide

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Series:

Susan M. Johns

analysis will be put into the context of an appraisal of the importance of gender, lordship and the way that family connections were indicated through countergifts. This will be achieved through a consideration of the importance of the type(s) of countergift that women received, and, where appropriate, this will be put into a comparative framework with those received by men. Thus it is argued that an analysis of countergifts should properly be studied in sociocultural contexts but with an awareness of the impact of gender and the demands of tenurial lordship. Lordship is

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Unreal cities and undead legacies

T.S. Eliot and Gothic hauntings in Waugh’s A Handful of Dust and Barnes’s Nightwood

Avril Horner and Sue Zlosnik

reference point for this re-assessment, we also draw attention to the way in which both Barnes and Waugh use his work as a touchstone to negotiate the Gothic within their novels. We suggest that Eliot’s relationships with these two texts, when taken together, offer an interesting perspective on the relationship borne by Modernism in its late phase to literary traditions, both English and American. Furthermore, Eliot’s critical appraisal of Barnes’s work is shown to be informed by a perspective which reveals an American anxiety concerning tradition and the individual talent

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Sarah Alyn Stacey

identity and that successful communication of that identity consists in a straightforward linear transaction between the emitter’s intended signal and the reproductive consciousness  Writing the dynamics of identity of the receiver/interpreter. What Cyrille fails to entertain is that, just as Jacob may have misinterpreted her sexual identity, it is equally possible that she may have misinterpreted his appraisal of her (and, of course, other expressions of his identity), and indeed her own true identity. The episode also illustrates one of the mechanisms whereby the

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Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

market for sports’ entertainment, its social and cultural meanings, the mode in which it is consumed, the way it is financed, and the distribution of its returns to the players and organisers have changed fundamentally. In this Introduction we raise a number of issues relevant to the appraisal of ‘the market’. Markets, of course, are not natural phenomena; they are created institutions, frameworks assembled and adhered to by the market’s participants. Their number varies over time as innovations of technique and organisation open up new ways of using economic resources

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John Callaghan, Steven Fielding and Steve Ludlam

Pelling from such a dismissive appraisal and shows how far he defined his early work through an engagement with prevailing ideological currents which traced their origins to the basic concerns of Marxist scholarship. Pelling, who sympathised with the Labour leadership’s social democratic outlook, came to conclusions at variance with those of others who, like Miliband, were critical of the party leadership’s apparent lack of desire to transform capitalism into socialism. Steven Fielding and Declan McHugh (chapter 9) subject to critical appraisal the work of another – but