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Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

growing influence of ‘behavioural economics’ ( Alcock, 2016 ). Before its sobering escape into the wild, as evinced in the Trump election and Brexit referendum ( Cadwalladr, 2017 ), behavioural economics had been popularised as ‘nudge politics’. Despite raising democratic concerns in targeting the sub-conscious, it has found favour among many Western governments. 5 Behavioural economics operationalises late-capitalism’s logistical requirement for people and things to be in the right place at the right time 24/7 ( Srnicek, 2016 ). Humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

Introduction All over the globe, fascism, racism and xenophobic nationalism are resurfacing in what we once thought of as ‘respectable’ democracies. Following a particularly bleak weekend at the end of October 2018 (the election of Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil, reports of worsening famine in Yemen, Israeli bombardment of Gaza and the murder of eleven worshippers at a refugee-harbouring synagogue in Pittsburgh), my colleague Dr Sara Salem of the London School of Economics tweeted: ‘It’s difficult watching political scientists scrambling to understand

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

implementation of humanitarian organisations’ social missions. The Distinction between ‘Staff Security’ and ‘Civilian Protection’ in Policy and Practice The grey literature on civilian protection identifies threat reduction and vulnerability reduction as protection objectives ( IASC, 2016 : 3; Slim and Bonwick, 2005 : 52–3). Threat-reduction strategies aim to change the behaviour of those who would perpetrate violence, while vulnerability-reduction strategies implicitly accept

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
G.M. Peter Swann

deriving ever more elaborate optimisation algorithms; and the other social scientists who still, mistakenly, believe that ‘there is nothing more to the economics of consumption than utility maximisation’. Between this introduction and the conclusion the chapter is divided into five sections. The first looks at the hard core of modern economics of consumption. In this, consumer behaviour is about utility maximisation – or, to be more precise, it is about an axiomatic theory of demand. If these axioms are accepted, then modern demand theory shows that the consumer behaves

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

9 Conclusion Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde In conclusion we draw together and evaluate a number of the themes raised in this volume and begin to sketch an agenda for future research about markets and the competitive process. Happily, this book resides within a now-flourishing broader stream of ideas at the interface between economics and sociology. Some of this new work signals the resurrection of economic sociology, while other aspects of it emanate from within the literature on innovation processes and, more generally, from evolutionary economics. There has

in Market relations and the competitive process
Problems of polysemy and idealism
Andrew Sayer

2 Markets, embeddedness and trust: problems of polysemy and idealism Andrew Sayer Introduction In this paper I develop a critique of certain approaches to markets and firm behaviour in economics and economic sociology. There are two main targets of the critique. The first concerns some common approaches to markets and the nature of firms in relation to them. Here I argue that the diverse uses of the term ‘market’ in contemporary lay and academic discourse cause confusion. Also problematic in both mainstream and institutional economics is the tendency to treat

in Market relations and the competitive process
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Mark Tomlinson and Andrew McMeekin

rational action stemming from the work of Milton Friedman. He argues that Friedman sidestepped issues of ‘realistic analyses of the way in which business people decide and act. He disregarded empirical evidence of the routine-driven nature of business activity …’ (Hodgson, 1997, p. 663). Hodgson argues that analyses of decision making should consider the importance of habits and rules. Specifically, his interest lies in understanding the circumstances in which agents are required to exhibit habitual behaviour. Old institutional economics saw habits as central to their

in Innovation by demand
Open Access (free)
A multidisciplinary perspective
Wilhelm Ruprecht

literature does not seem to be surprising, since they present rather large challenges to standard consumption and preference theory. However, Kelvin Lancaster (1966) managed to fit the adoption of new consumer goods within a neoclassical framework. In the next section his approach is assessed and related to recent approaches addressing the same phenomenon from a behavioural economics perspective, allowing for preference change. While preference change no longer seems to be a non-issue for economists, the question for the biological foundations enabling and constraining

in Innovation by demand
Andrew McMeekin, Ken Green, Mark Tomlinson and Vivien Walsh

broad conceptual overviews of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption. Alan Warde, in Chapter 2, reviews the sociological literature on consumption, focusing in particular on research that offers alternative or complementary views to the concepts of ‘conspicuous consumption’ and individual choice, which has dominated much work in this area. From this, he proposes a research agenda for examining everyday consumption, that is, consumption that is unremarkable, bound by habit and routine, and which takes

in Innovation by demand