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Toby Fricker

the rapid influx of people, the Jordanian government opened Za’atari refugee camp in late July 2012, with support from the Jordan Hashemite Charity Organisation, United Nations agencies and other partners. 3 In the harsh conditions of Jordan’s northern desert, Za’atari rapidly became a massive aid operation and at the same time the media face of not only the refugee crisis in Jordan but across the

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The Changing Faces of UNRWA

From the Global to the Local

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

specifically, it examines the ways UNRWA’s operational changes since January 2018 have been experienced and conceptualised by Palestinians living in Lebanon. It does so through a multiscalar analysis, tracing and examining processes taking place in the international arena, on regional and national levels in the Middle East and within the Palestinian refugee camps of Lebanon. 1 In January 2018, the US Government declared that it would contribute only $60 million to UNRWA (compared to $364 million the previous year) 2 unless the Agency undertook

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Jean-Marc Dreyfus

From 1945 until around 1960, ceremonies of a new kind took place throughout Europe to commemorate the Holocaust and the deportation of Jews; ashes would be taken from the site of a concentration camp, an extermination camp, or the site of a massacre and sent back to the deportees country of origin (or to Israel). In these countries, commemorative ceremonies were then organised and these ashes (sometimes containing other human remains) placed within a memorial or reburied in a cemetery. These transfers of ashes have, however, received little attention from historical researchers. This article sets out to describe a certain number of them, all differing considerably from one another, before drawing up a typology of this phenomenon and attempting its analysis. It investigates the symbolic function of ashes in the aftermath of the Second World War and argues that these transfers – as well as having a mimetic relationship to transfers of relics – were also instruments of political legitimisation.

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Jessica Auchter

The after-effects of mass atrocity – bodies and bones – struggle to be defined within memorial projects. This article seeks to examine the politics at play in displaying dead bodies to interrogate the role of materiality in efforts to memorialise and raise awareness about on-going violences. It focusses on the nexus between evidence, dignity, humanity and memory to explore bone display in Rwanda. It then takes up two artistic projects that play on the materiality of human remains after atrocity: the art of Carl Michael von Hausswolff, who took ashes from an urn at the Majdanek concentration camp and used them as the material for his painting, and the One Million Bones Project, an installation that exhibits ceramic bones to raise awareness about global violence. In thinking about the intersections between human biomatter, art and politics, the article seeks to raise questions about both production and consumption: how bones and ashes of the dead are produced, and how they are consumed by viewers when placed on display in a variety of ways.

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“I live a hope despite my knowing better”

James Baldwin in Conversation with Fritz J. Raddatz (1978)

Gianna Zocco

This is the first English-language publication of an interview with James Baldwin conducted by the German writer, editor, and journalist Fritz J. Raddatz in 1978 at Baldwin’s house in St. Paul-de-Vence. In the same year, it was published in German in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit, as well as in a book of Raddatz’s conversations with international writers, and—in Italian translation—in the newspaper La Repubblica. The interview covers various topics characteristic of Baldwin’s interests at the time—among them his thoughts about Jimmy Carter’s presidency, his reasons for planning to return to the United States, his disillusionment after the series of murders of black civil rights activists in the 1960s and 1970s, and the role of love and sexuality in his literary writings. A special emphasis lies on the discussion of possible parallels between Nazi Germany and U.S. racism, with Baldwin most prominently likening the whole city of New York to a concentration camp. Due to copyright reasons, this reprint is based on an English translation of the edited version published in German. A one-hour tape recording of the original English conversation between Raddatz and Baldwin is accessible at the German literary archive in Marbach.

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When the Music Stops

Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Stephen Hopgood

to beg for Emperor Louis Napoleon’s help in saving his colonial investments. We can look at the use by German forces in the 1870 Franco-Prussian war of the Red Cross as a bombing target, or the contrast between The Hague Conventions and the use of poison gas during World War I, or prior to that the creation of a concentration camp system by the British in South Africa. Indeed, we can go back to the famines the British at worst engineered, and at best tolerated, in India, killing millions of people. Or the Germans and the Herero, or the Belgians

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David Rieff

moral obligation to take a political stance that citizenship imposes. 5 No such ‘opt out’ is available with regard to the boat people at sea or the migrants in Calais and other French port cities, camped as they endeavour to find a way to get to Britain. The fact that where one stands with regard to the migrants has become the defining political and moral issue in the EU makes even a semblance of humanitarian ‘neutrality’ an impossibility. And rightly so. At present, however, European relief NGOs seem to want to maintain the fiction that their

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All Lives Are Equal but Some Lives Are More Equal than Others

Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

Miriam Bradley

agencies have also evacuated civilians relatively frequently in recent years, mainly from siege environments ( Norwegian Refugee Council, 2016 : 5). However, such evacuations are usually to another site in the same country, and the expectation is that local civilians should be evacuated in-country ( Norwegian Refugee Council, 2016 : 23; UNHCR, n.d. ). On the other hand, civilians frequently ‘evacuate’ themselves, a phenomenon more commonly called displacement, and international agencies provide support (camps, shelter, material assistance) to displaced civilians

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Emmanuelle Strub

, Rwanda and the entire Great Lakes region of Africa became particularly high-risk areas for aid workers. It was during the intervention in Somalia in 1992 that the interface between security, operational procedures and humanitarian principles became central for MdM. The political and security climate at the time confined NGOs to urban centres across Somalia, while the looting of humanitarian convoys by armed men on the main roads made regular aid delivery to the IDP (internally displaced person) camps difficult. Was armed protection necessary to ensure access to

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Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies ’, Global Health: Science and Practice , 4 : 4 , 626 – 46 , doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-16-00226 . Gluckman , M. ( 1940 ), ‘ Analysis of a Social Situation in Modern Zululand ’, Bantu Studies , 14 : 1 , 1 – 30 , doi: 10.1080/02561751.1940.9676107 . Gomez-Temesio , V. ( 2018 ), ‘ Outliving Death: Ebola, Zombies, and the Politics of Saving Lives ’, American Anthropologist , 120 , 738 – 51 , doi: 10.1111/aman.13126 . Gomez-Temesio , V. and Le Marcis , F. ( 2017 ), ‘ La mise en camp