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Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

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Cautionary tales and oral tradition in early modern England

6 Chapter 6 The spoken word Reformed folklore? Reformed folklore? Cautionary tales and oral tradition in early modern England Alexandra Walsham P rotestantism and print have often been presented as inherently hostile to oral tradition. Historians have credited both with a leading role in marginalizing, fossilizing, and ultimately suffocating the vernacular culture of late medieval England. Still widely regarded as a movement whose success depended upon the spread of literacy and the advent of the press, the Reformation is commonly associated with attempts to

in The spoken word
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West Indian intellectual

Edward Kamau Brathwaite, ‘A post-cautionary tale of the Helen of our wars’, Wasafiri , 22 (1995), p. 70. 14 Braithwaite, ‘Post-cautionary tale’, pp. 69 and 78. 15 Braithwaite, ‘Post-cautionary tale’, p. 75

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain
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Romances, novels, and the classifications of Irish Romantic fiction

are often accepted without question today. Reviews of White's Earl Strongbow (1789) oscillated in their classifications of the tale as either historical or romantic in nature. The Critical Review briefly dismissed White's use of the ghost of Strongbow to narrate the tale as ‘trite and hackneyed’ before offering a ‘minute’ dissection of the novel's many historical anachronisms. 3 Despite highlighting the ‘inconsistency’ of a language unsuitable to the time of Charles II and various other anachronistic misdemeanours, The Critical Review ultimately commended

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
The structures of migration in Tales from Firozsha Baag

dastan storytelling tradition. Although the word has now come to mean a short story in general, it was originally applied to the narratives forming independent story-units within a larger narrative whole; the stories of the heroes in the Shah-Namah constitute one example. The dastan is a feature of Persian, Arabic and South Asian literary traditions. Perhaps the most famous example of the dastan form is the Book of a Thousand and One Nights.19 Of course, Nariman’s cautionary tale is not meant to be taken literally, but these stories-within-stories take us back through

in Rohinton Mistry
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‘Gothicism’, ‘historicism’, and the overlap of fictional modes from Thomas Leland to Walter Scott

1763, 1766, 1775, and 1790, and twice adapted for the stage as The Countess of Salisbury . 2 Yet, the novel remains little read today. In its twinned contemporary approbation and current neglect, Longsword stands in direct contrast to Walpole's The castle of Otranto (1764), which famously provoked controversy, especially on the publication of its revised second edition, and now enjoys the relatively uncontested reputation as the first British gothic novel. However, it is worth remembering that Walpole's tale and its self-description as ‘a Gothic story

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
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assisted emigration, a far greater body of parish clergy responded to their parishioners in providing occasionally reluctant, but often vital facilitation of independent migration. In particular, the priest’s role in kick-starting local ‘chains’ of emigration by soliciting passage money and handling correspondence and remittances should be acknowledged as important. Although the clergy had therefore been forced to concede that the economic imperative would always trump any cautionary tales of spiritual ruin they had cause to dispense, as the hierarchy’s 1902 statement

in Population, providence and empire
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wunderkind who penned tales of violent excess in Midnight Express and Scarface, and who found fame and fortune in the reconfiguring of Hollywood’s perspective on Vietnam, also acquired something of a ‘Midas touch’ when it came to eliciting establishment outrage. By the 1990s, an on-​screen homage to Jim Morrison played nicely to off-​screen tales of drug-​ fuelled excesses, although the mixture of professional and personal coverage was eclipsed by the allegation at the heart of JFK in 1991 of a state-​sponsored coup d’état. By this time, Stone’s brand identity had

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
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changed in rather complicated ways. Not only had they changed since the time of Oliver Stone’s original Wall Street in 1987, but they had renegotiated their relationship with institutions and the public in a dramatically short space of time: over the previous two-​and-​a-​half years. Therefore, Stone’s updating of arch protagonist Gordon Gekko’s exploits for the financially strapped twenty-​first century was a prescient cautionary tale and a morality fable of sorts; but it was also a vignette about Hollywood as an industry, as it gravitated increasingly towards box

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
Competing imaginaries of science and social order in responsible (research and) innovation

friends viewed the pace of change from agrarian society to industrial modernity, and it is still considered a cautionary tale about the capacity of technology to do ill as well as good (Botting, 2003; Latour, 2012; Turney, 2000). As Turney explains: It is frightening because it depicts a human enterprise which is out of control, and which turns on its creator … [but] the myth is never a straightforward anti-science story … the Frankenstein script, in its most salient forms, incorporates an ambivalence about science, method and motive, which is never resolved. (Turney

in Science and the politics of openness