chap 3 22/3/04 12:52 pm Page 74 3 Lower clergy versus bishops The church desperately needed men like Bérulle and Olier to formulate coherent theologies to underpin its reform initiatives. Yet not everyone agreed that the church should function according to a hierarchical arrangement that gave bishops absolute authority over the clergy below them in rank. Fundamental disagreements over the complicated questions of hierarchy and jurisdiction brought many tough challenges for French bishops, for they were pitted against members of the lower clergy and even

in Fathers, pastors and kings
The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

Open Access (free)
Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

Open Access (free)
The clergy and emigration in principle

1 Talk of population: the clergy and emigration in principle Migration from nineteenth-century Ireland, no less than migration from any other society, was driven primarily by an economic imperative. Whether attracted by the promise of a better life in Britain or the New World, or feeling compelled to leave by a lack of opportunity at home, most Irish emigrants determined their course based on a rational assessment of their own and their family’s best economic interests.1 Accordingly, as Professor David Fitzpatrick has eloquently observed, ‘for its opponents as

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)

and Two, clergy could influence would-be migrants 235 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 235 15/09/2014 11:47 Conclusion only in the manner of their departure; stemming the flow altogether was beyond even their divinely sanctioned power. Instead, such reports had their greatest impact in acting as grist to the mills of the Catholic Church’s opponents, whether Protestant evangelicals or lapsed Catholic anti-clericals. In another sense, however, the undertones of the Shinnors row illustrate the more favourable consequences of emigration for the Catholic Church. Despite

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
The clergy and emigration in practice

2 The emigrant’s friend?: the clergy and emigration in practice Although it subsequently proved to be wishful thinking, the widely held notion that an Ireland governed by Irishmen would cease to export its population en masse was, as Kerby Miller has noted, a logical counterpoint to the belief that only British maladministration had made doing so necessary in the first place.1 In the absence of the supposed balm of self-government, however, those wishing to prevent emigration had only one option: persuade would-be emigrants not to leave. That this was a tall

in Population, providence and empire
Emigration and sectarian rivalry

of farce typical of the modern Irish short story (of which Moore is often deemed the first exponent), but the demographic fears underlying the plot were not without a grounding in reality.2 While the previous chapters have focused on the various forms of influence which clergy exercised, and failed to exercise, over emigration, a significant strand of clerical commentary on the subject concerned the opposite: the effect the exodus might have on the churches, and more specifically, on the balance of power between them. This was a necessarily combative discourse

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)
Clergy, orality and print in the Scottish Gaelic world

6 Chapter 3 The spoken word The pulpit and the pen The pulpit and the pen: clergy, orality and print in the Scottish Gaelic world Donald E. Meek T he clergy have been of great importance to the creation, maintenance and growth of literacy within the Celtic cultures of Britain and Ireland. This observation applies across the centuries from the early Middle Ages to the period after 1870, when (in Britain) the Education Acts and the consequent nationalizing of educational systems laid the foundations of mass literacy. Even in the twentieth century clergymen

in The spoken word

the bishops have to define their relationship with the lower clergy; they also had to characterise and then defend their understanding of the links between episcopacy and the supreme headship of the earthly church. As two of the major offices of the church, the episcopate and the pope had to interact routinely if the church was to function smoothly. But this intercourse carried the risks of rivalry and disagreement, and more often than not that was precisely how it evolved over the course of the century. Whenever the pope strayed into the French church, he tended to

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Open Access (free)

chap 5 22/3/04 12:53 pm Page 144 5 An uneasy alliance Despite the lamentations of seventeenth-century reformers about the inadequacies of religious belief and practice among the French population, they at least had the satisfaction of knowing that there was no real danger that protestantism would ever again challenge the privileged position of the Catholic church. Catholicism was the religion of France, of the majority of French people and of the royal family. Its clergy composed the first estate and were represented at provincial and national estates; they

in Fathers, pastors and kings