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The churches and emigration from nineteenth-century Ireland

The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.

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Conclusion In 1902, shortly after the Irish Catholic bishops jointly issued what seemed a definitive, downbeat resolution on the ‘ruinous’ outflow of the previous half-century, the Irish Ecclesiastical Record also played host to a transatlantic clerical spat on the same subject.1 Initiated by the idiosyncratic American dispatches of a Dublin-based Oblate mission Father, M. F. Shinnors, and answered by an Irish-American priest, John Talbot Smith, the row was in several respects nothing new. Just as Shinnors rehashed the careworn arguments about Irish Catholic

in Population, providence and empire
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The reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702

claim which compromised the social power claimed by the Church over their exclusive rights of interpreting revelation. Reading books, under the advice of Toland, became a political act. The conflict between Toland’s public reputation and private faith came early in his career. Some time in early 1694 a concerned cleric had left Toland a long letter expressing anxieties that he had ‘great learning but little religion’. Toland’s outraged reply insisted that he was orthodox, confirmed by a short credo of his Christian faith. First, he claimed to believe in an ‘infinite

in Republican learning
Elite beliefs about witchcraft and magic

confidence from other sources. The opinions written by jurists and, occasionally, clerics for the councillors on particularly problematic witchcraft cases are most important in this regard, as they set case-specific advice in the context of wider demonological and jurisprudential thinking about the crime of witchcraft and usually cited the legal or theological texts on which their conclusions were based. Jurist Georg Christoph Walther also wrote a twenty-nine-page treatise to better inform the councillors about witches and their activities in September 1652.1 These jurists

in Witchcraft narratives in Germany
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French clerical reformers and episcopal status

relationship between the two and Pavillon’s regard for de Paul’s advice.90 The conferences provided a forum for a subject dear to de Paul, the implementation of clerical reform, so that their emphasis lay on producing priests who recognised the sanctity of their vocation and who were able to live accordingly. Here, ordinands and priests discussed theological questions as well as learning about the practicalities of pastoral administration, methods of prayer, meditation and study. Equally, the conferences were the perfect opportunity to stress the hierarchical dignity and

in Fathers, pastors and kings
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Patristic erudition and the attack on Scripture

distinguish the spurious from the authentic text; the function of print technology was to enable this critically purified text to be ‘read’ in a theologically correct manner. Clerical scholarship thus produced a cultural artefact that both reified their institutional authority and acted as a testimony of that authority. The patristic edition was both a site for making and contesting true knowledge. Caution in choosing to read only the best editions of the Fathers was a central theme of Protestant advice. Daniel Tossanus, Professor of Divinity at Heidelberg, in his

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
The clergy and emigration in practice

single men or married couples. He endeavoured to have such situations rectified by the relevant authorities.58 69 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 69 15/09/2014 11:47 Population, providence and empire If the potential immorality of steerage sparked clerical fears across denominations, the nature of religious provision aboard ship could be equally worrisome. The close confines of the vessel could give way to quarrels ‘on the score of religion’, as one early traveller noted, and the Emigration Commissioners’ 1848 decree that Sundays ‘be observed as religiously as the

in Population, providence and empire

, And pray for the poor that they may have safety; Spigurnel and Belflour are cruel men; If they were in my jurisdiction they would not be returned.111 It was the common theme of dissatisfaction that is significant and the general perception of wrongdoing that carried weight with contemporaries, even though it might itself be misguided or wrongly applicable across the board. Where judges came into court to give advice or merely to sit on cases their presence was sometimes regarded with suspicion, particularly where they appeared as a well-wisher (benivolens) of one

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
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safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. These are examined with due regard to the patterns of opinion set out in the previous chapter and with the intention of assessing the extent to which clergymen were able to impose their views on the emigration process. The chapter relies for evidence on careful use of literary sources, the accounts of visitors to and travellers in Ireland, clerically authored pamphlets, parliamentary reports and manuscript material from religious archives. Chapter Three is an extensive

in Population, providence and empire
Open Access (free)

in directing the morality of her husband is clear in Orderic’s tale of a Breton whose wife persuaded him to give up a life of crime by obeying her wise counsels’.28 Orderic’s portrayal of women, laced with his perception of the appropriate behaviour of women at different stages of their life cycle, confirms the validity of Stafford’s general approach.29 Thus a good wife encourages her husband in religious patronage, will offer advice and be obedient to her husband’s wishes. A wife will give good counsel. Orderic’s ambiguous view of women’s influence extends to his

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm