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Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

( Boltanski and Chiapello, 2005 ). Jobs for life, intergenerational career structures, apprenticeships, subsidised canteens, social clubs, sports facilities and company pensions have disappeared. In the mid twentieth century, for the white working class at least, welfarism together with a Fordist employment culture provided a high degree of protection against market forces. Indeed, this was a defining political feature of the West’s racial- and gender-inflected Cold War social-democratic settlement ( Streeck, 2017 ). Over the last two or three decades

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.

The origins and endurance of club regulation

1 Ethics ‘by and for professions’: the origins and endurance of club regulation Doctors and scientists successfully argued that they should be left to determine their own conduct during the nineteenth and much of the twentieth centuries, in a form of self-governance that Michael Moran terms ‘club regulation’.1 They portrayed medical and scientific ethics as internal concerns in this period – produced ‘by and for’ colleagues and mainly concerned with limiting intra-professional conflicts.2 This view of ethics functioned as what Harold Perkin calls a ‘strategy of

in The making of British bioethics

of the product supplied by each individual club. The output of the league and its constituent members is maximised when there is some degree of competitive balance in the league so that the outcomes of matches are uncertain. If leagues become unbalanced, lack of uncertainty over the outcomes of matches reduces demand by spectators/viewers. In the absence of regulation, leagues have a tendency to become unbalanced. Leading clubs attract more spectators and viewers, sell more merchandise and can command higher prices for tickets and for the rights to broadcast

in Market relations and the competitive process

Commission notified FIFA and UEFA that they must fully comply with Bosman within six weeks. After failing to gain an exemption under Article 81(3), FIFA and UEFA informed the Commission that both the international transfer system and nationality restrictions would be abolished. In 1997 FIFA’s new Regulations for the Status and Transfer of Players were adopted. Players would be able to move to another club in a different EU/EEA state at the end of their 140 Sports law and policy in the European Union contract without a transfer fee being payable. Furthermore, in UEFA

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

club; and (2) prohibiting the national and international sporting associations or federations from including in their respective regulations provisions restricting access of foreign players from the European Community to the competitions which they organise? Sport and the European Court of Justice 95 These two questions relate to two UEFA sanctioned practices regarding transfer fees and restrictions on foreign players. First, under the UEFA international transfer rules, a club selling a player is entitled to compensation for training and development from the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

. Sabine Verheyen MEP 1 This chapter first considers the 2013 Proposal and Trilogue in 2014/15, then the 2015 Regulation’s net neutrality aspects, before finally looking at the details of BEREC’s implementation of its Guidelines. European law upheld transparency on a mandatory basis, and minimum QoS on a voluntary basis, under provisions in the 2009 electronic communications

in Network neutrality

and farmers’ goodwill and had obstacles and courses marked with flags. Courses could be very stiff and challenging: High Peak in 1936 had a members’ race over 4 miles with thirty-six stone walls to jump. Held annually, point-to-points were often associated with particular hunts, mostly foxhounds, and were run to raise funds towards the end of the hunting season. Others were military meetings, although there were also Oxbridge point-topoints, and the Pegasus Club for judges and barristers. Most point-to-points were raced for by both heavy and more lightweight riders

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39

federations. Competitively, clubs move up and down a pyramid of competition on the basis of promotion and relegation, i.e. merit-based criteria as opposed to economically based criteria. Since the 1980s, this European ‘model’ of sport has come under sustained pressure due to the television-led commercialisation of sport.4 Until the 1980s the regulation of broadcasting was a matter of purely national jurisdiction. In Britain, for example, competition in broadcasting 10 Sports law and policy in the European Union was minimal, often taking the form of a monopoly or a

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

to sport has emerged. This implies the birth of EU sports law, which has had the result of shifting the nature of sports regulation towards a socio-cultural model of regulation. EU interventions in sport do not simply reflect a desire to correct market distortions or restrictions. Judicial intervention is sensitive to the requirements of current EU sports policy. As such, it is no longer appropriate to refer to the EU’s regulation of sport as an example of sport and the law. Rather, by defining separate territories of sporting autonomy and judicial intervention

in Sports law and policy in the European Union