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3 Cognition and markets Brian J. Loasby Introduction Whether as an explanation of decision making or as a guide to making decisions, rational choice theory is not very interesting. What is called ‘a decision’ is merely the logical precipitate of the premisses: everything that might be regarded as a determinant of choice is already in place, and assumed to be known (if only as a probability distribution) to the chooser. Within choice theory agents make no decisions. Now this should not be a source of complaint, for, paradoxical as it may seem, choice theory is

in Market relations and the competitive process
Editors: Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.

Kant

who wish to question the perception of Kant’s enterprise as merely an exercise in legitimating the natural sciences, and on the other to those who see the need to extend the scope of epistemology if it is not to founder on the problems that become apparent in the first two Critiques. Dieter Henrich regards the crux of Kant’s epistemology as the justification of ‘forms of cognition from the form and nature of self-consciousness’ (Henrich 1982 p. 176). The philosophical problem is therefore how the form and nature of self-consciousness are to be described. Descartes had

in Aesthetics and subjectivity

Gadamer . . . Truth here is seen in terms of the capacity of forms of articulation to ‘disclose’ the world.5 For Bernstein, too, ‘art and aesthetics . . . appear as somehow more truthful than empirical truth . . . more rational than methodological reason, more just than liberal justice . . . more valuable than principled morality or utility’.6 This is not to argue that art, and the world disclosed in art, are simply ‘more true’ than truth as correspondence, that ‘art and aesthetics are true while truth-only cognition, say in its realisation in the natural sciences, is

in The new aestheticism
Open Access (free)
A multidisciplinary perspective

following prerequisites must be simultaneously present: 1 A human need. 2 Such properties as render the thing capable of being brought into a causal connection with the satisfaction of this need. 3 Human knowledge of this causal connection. 4 Command of the thing sufficient to direct it to the satisfaction of the need (Menger, 1950, p. 52). Just focusing on the conditions for adoption, Menger distinguishes four elements, the first three of which we consider as constitutive for adoption: motivation, the objective properties of the good, and cognition. Since the fourth

in Innovation by demand
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Fateful splitting in the Victorian insanity trial

another person’, challenged the jury to determine who exactly had committed the crime. Seen against the backdrop of a defendant population increasingly ‘missing’ at the time of their crimes, the concept of moral insanity represents much more than a momentary courtroom diversion on the way to the McNaughtan Rules.15 It signalled the beginning 25 Joel Peter Eigen of medical testimony that would question whether intellect, cognition, and will were integrated in any meaningful way. Post-McNaughtan defendants who suffered bouts of amnesia, who committed an assault while

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000

utopian invention, carries with it (like all utopias) the negative recognition that the world of the senses from which it is freeing itself is imperfect, or fallen. Such a recognition would certainly accord with Sidney’s Protestantism. But from the perspective of our discussion, this movement beyond history may be read as an attempt to offer a truly historical cognition of the world. In this allusion to a truth beyond a mimetic relation to the world, Sidney is also able to combat charges that poets are liars. Sidney argues that ‘though he [the poet] recount things not

in The new aestheticism
Open Access (free)
Art and interpretation

sensuous and the conceptual, the receptive and the spontaneous cannot be strictly upheld. Hamann maintains in his own inimitable manner that our need for language means that a notion of philosophy based on a priori forms of cognition lacks a decisive dimension. His argument is worth quoting at length, because its baroque form is also part of its content: So another main question remains: how the capacity of thinking is possible? – The capacity to think right and left, before and without, with and beyond experience? One needs no deduction to prove the genealogical

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
An introduction

possibility of its having a transformative potential. As Bernstein argues: if art is alienated from truth and goodness by being isolated into a separate sphere, then that entails that ‘truth’ and ‘goodness’ are alienated, separated from themselves. Aesthetic alienation, then, betokens truth’s and reason’s internal diremption and deformation. . . . Art’s exclusion from first-order cognition and moral judgement is, then, a condition of its ability to register (in a speaking silence) a second-order truth about first-order truth.35 Inadmissible to forms of criticism generated

in The new aestheticism
Open Access (free)
A social representation of scientific expertise

important role in the film, Gore evidently recognised, like Dewey, that public mobilisation requires climate change to be made meaningful, not abstract, by manipulating both cognitions and emotions (Beattie et al., 2011) so that ‘enough people lock into the same narrative and connect the dots and feel the danger facing their children’ (Bates and Goodell, 2007). The emergence of scientific knowledge about climate change has given rise to ‘an impersonal, apolitical, and universal imaginary of climate change’ that has taken over from ‘normative imaginations of human actors

in Science and the politics of openness