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Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 4 27/5/03 11:54 am Page 141 4 The Land constitutions Introduction For almost forty years after the federal Constitution went into effect, little attention was paid to state (Land) constitutions in Germany. Amendments were made on numerous occasions, but these were almost always rather minor changes or technical corrections and did not arouse much controversy. At the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, this changed dramatically for two major reasons. A scandal in SchleswigHolstein in 1987 involving allegations that the prime minister

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Ernesto Schwartz-Marin and Arely Cruz-Santiago

The article will present the findings of ethnographic research into the Colombian and Mexican forensic systems, introducing the first citizen-led exhumation project made possible through the cooperation of scholars, forensic specialists and interested citizens in Mexico. The coupling evolution and mutual re-constitution of forensic science will be explored, including new forms of citizenship and nation building projects – all approached as lived experience – in two of Latin America‘s most complex contexts: organised crime and mass death.

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José Luís Fiori

system would disintegrate. To be more precise: The constitution of a global empire would always result from the victory of a specific nation state – a state capable of monopolising power to the extent that its rivals disappear. However, if this were to happen, the victorious state would not be able to continue increasing its own power since the mechanism for the accumulation of power – competition – would no longer exist. It is this mechanism that causes the disorderly and uneven, but continuous, expansion of the inter-state system itself

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George III

King and politicians 1760-1770

Peter D.G. Thomas

The eighteenth century was long deemed ‘the classical age of the constitution’ in Britain, with cabinet government based on a two-party system of Whigs and Tories in Parliament, and a monarchy whose powers had been emasculated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689. This study furthers the work of Sir Lewis Namier, who, in 1929, argued that no such party system existed, George III was not a cypher, and that Parliament was an administration composed of factions and opposition. George III is a high-profile and well-known character in British history, whose policies have often been blamed for the loss of Britain's American colonies, around whom rages a perennial dispute over his aims: was he seeking to restore royal power or merely exercising his constitutional rights? This is a chronological survey of the first ten years of his reign through power politics and policy making.

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Cameron Ross

FAD3 10/17/2002 5:42 PM Page 29 3 Federalism and constitutional asymmetry As Taras notes, ‘Establishing a constitutional framework that sets out the political rules of the game and the institutions that allocate values in society is the most daunting challenge for a new regime’.1 For Maravall and di Tella, two features of constitutionalism are particularly important. First, constitutions seek to define, ‘the future substance as well as the form of politics by placing certain political, social and economic, rights beyond the reach of democratic uncertainty

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Ross M. English

1 Origins and development of Congress All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. (The Constitution of the United States of America, Article 1, Section 1) The origins of the Constitution In 1787, when the Founding Fathers of the United States of America crafted the Constitution – a Constitution which still endures today – they chose for the very first article, not the institution of the President or the Supreme Court, but the US Congress. The

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Cameron Ross

FAD10 10/17/2002 6:04 PM Page 172 10 Conclusions Article 1 of the Russian Constitution states that the Russian Federation ‘is a democratic federative rule of law state with a republican form of government’. However, as this study has shown, whilst many of the structural prerequisites of a federal state have undoubtedly been formed, a federal and democratic culture has still to emerge. Thus, as Kempton notes, ‘although Russia inherited a federal structure, it did not inherit a federal tradition’.1 Centre–periphery relations in Russia have been determined

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Series:

Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 2 27/5/03 11:53 am Page 53 2 Theory and constitutional framework of German federalism Introduction As in the case of the American states, the German Länder existed before the federation. But unlike the United States, there is no legal controversy in Germany over the role of the states as opposed to the “people” in creating the federation.1 Representatives from the Länder met at Herrenchiemsee in 1948 to draft the new constitution and formed the Parliamentary Council which negotiated with the Allies over the final text in 1949. The German Constitution

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From constitutional to political asymmetry

Crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics

Cameron Ross

FAD9 10/17/2002 6:03 PM Page 157 9 From constitutional to political asymmetry: crafting authoritarian regimes in Russia’s regions and republics Russia’s constitutional asymmetry has prevented the development of universal norms of citizenship and human rights in the federation. As long as republic and regional leaders pledged support for Yeltsin and ‘brought home the bacon’, in the way of ethnic stability, tax revenues and electoral support, federal authorities have been quite happy to turn a blind eye to the flagrant violations of the Russian Constitution by

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Peter Calvert

tradition. 74 DISCIPLINES The myth of American exceptionalism We can begin with Gladstone’s apothegm that the US Constitution was ‘the most wonderful work ever struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man’. One could challenge this judgement on many grounds. American historians have long since come to see the American Revolution not as a form of Constitutional debate but as the consequence of a deep-seated conflict of interest between Britain and its colonies – a view, moreover, with which Thomas Jefferson would undoubtedly have agreed. The Jeffersonians