Open Access (free)

Education 4 ➤ The background to education after World War II ➤ The principles of the 1944 Education Act ➤ The change to comprehensive schooling ➤ Analysis of Conservative policy in the 1980s ➤ The importance of the 1988 Education Act ➤ The effects of the National Curriculum, testing and league tables ➤ New Labour policies on education Until World War II the involvement of the state in British education has been variable and, at times, has even seemed reluctant. Being fundamentally a liberal culture, there has been a fear that state intervention might

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Some philosophical obstacles and their resolution

MCK11 1/10/2003 10:35 AM Page 196 11 Education to toleration: some philosophical obstacles and their resolution David Heyd Toleration as a perceptual shift of perspectives Moral education has played a central role in all major ethical systems of thought from Aristotle to Kant, from the Torah to socialist ideology. Providing the young with moral education is particularly tricky, since moral judgement, and even more so moral behaviour, does not come naturally to human beings. The incorporation of moral values and norms requires a distinctive effort and often

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies

1 Thomas Docherty Aesthetic education and the demise of experience The philistine is intolerant.1 love naturally hates old age and keeps his distance from it 2 In 1913, Walter Benjamin was a central figure alongside his teacher, Gustav Wyneken, in the ‘German Youth Movement’, agitating for substantial reforms in the German educational system and, beyond that, in German society. He placed one of his first serious publications, an essay entitled ‘Experience’, in Der Anfang, the magazine of the movement, as a contribution to the debates. In this essay, he points

in The new aestheticism

10 David Gribble Good news for Francisco Ferrer – how anarchist ideals in education have survived around the world1 Introduction This chapter discusses the educational ideas of Francisco Ferrer, as expressed in his book The origin and ideals of the Modern School (1913) and compares these ideas with actual practice in anarchist schools early in the twentieth century. I suggest that a parallel movement grew up during the last century in the progressive or democratic schools which was in many ways closer in spirit to Ferrer than these early anarchist schools

in Changing anarchism
From the Global to the Local

by Palestinian UNRWA staff whose employment rights are being undermined both by financial cuts and operational changes. Furthermore, a second related way that ‘self-reliance’ is pertinent to this analysis emerges through the application of an additional lens: the private–public framework. I use this lens and what I denominate a process of ‘privatisation’ to denote the ways that operational changes are increasingly rendering Palestinians responsible for the provision of their own welfare and services – including education and health care

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

lifestyles and making good choices, while in the South, a post-humanitarian ethic has disaggregated, medicalised and reduced precarity to the basic nutritional, energy, health, sanitation, education, financial and psychic requirements needed to maintain bodily functioning ( Jaspars, 2015 ). Everywhere, resilience, or the injunction to endlessly adapt before unmediated market and environmental forces, has become the zeitgeist of late-modernity ( Evans and Reid, 2014 ). As the uncertainty of active unemployment becomes the global work norm, the chronically

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

rarely profitable, and so it is neglected by the commercial news market. This means it is vital that citizens, foundations, philanthropists and public-service outlets value and support this work ( Scott et al ., 2018 ). The third priority is media literacy. We need audiences to know how to distinguish sources that are trustworthy from those that are not. Education strategies will play a crucial role in the global response to disinformation. Legislators in California are currently considering a bill that would embed more media literacy into the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

of action taken by humanitarian organisations shows that the former can be broken down into a number of non-exclusive categories: demographic (women and children, children under five or, more rarely, the elderly), social (a discriminated-against minority, a disadvantaged stratum of society or a so-called ‘vulnerable’ group), medical (injured people who can be successfully operated on or patients with a specific condition such as trachoma, AIDS, malnutrition, etc.), organisational (safe drinking water, food, shelter, education, etc.), situational (refugees, IDPs

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

preventing a referral of Assad to the ICC, was the result. It is a long time since Kosovo in 1999, the high point of the post-Cold War humanitarian international, when the Western-led coalition broke international law but justified it by retrospectively arguing their actions were ‘illegal but legitimate’. Imagine China making the same argument about its treatment of the Uighurs, as many as one million of whom, it is said, now languish in re-education camps ( Cumming-Bruce, 2018 ). The third possibility, that we face a normative void, is perhaps more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Reasonable tolerance

The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates offer on toleration. This book starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate, reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, and the limited extent to which toleration can be granted. Theoretical statements on toleration posit at the same time its necessity in democratic societies, and its impossibility as a coherent ideal. There are several possible objections to, and ways of developing the ideal of, reasonable tolerance as advocated by John Rawls and by some other supporters of political liberalism. The first part of the book explores some of them. In some real-life conflicts, it is unclear on whom the burden of reasonableness may fall. This part discusses the reasonableness of pluralism, and general concept and various more specific conceptions of toleration. The forces of progressive politics have been divided into two camps: redistribution and recognition. The second part of the book is an attempt to explore the internal coherence of such a transformation when applied to different contexts. It argues that openness to others in discourse, and their treatment as free and equal, is part of a kind of reflexive toleration that pertains to public communication in the deliberative context. Social ethos, religious discrimination and education are discussed in connection with tolerance.