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Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

played out during critical moments. These snapshots talk about the present but reveal the longue durée . The five authors were closely involved in the national (Sylvain Landry B. Faye, Frédéric Le Marcis, Almudena Mari Saez and Luisa Enria) and international Ebola response (Sharon Abramowitz) in different capacities: carrying out ethnographic research, providing guidance on the socio-cultural aspects of clinical interventions and community engagement, advising multiple international actors, and as animator of a global network aimed at sharing information during the

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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

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Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Bonnie Evans

psychological framework model for recognising both disability rights and children’s rights. This chapter explores how British epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s came to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is. It argues that these changes have been associated with wider global changes relating to the definition and construction of children’s rights. Studies of

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Bonnie Evans

symptoms in children with autism. All This would have been unthinkable in the 1990s or even 2000s. Other initiatives, such as Nicola Shaughnessy’s major Arts and Humanities Research Council project ‘Imagining Autism’, seek to challenge the circumscribed models of autism put forward in the epidemiological, statistical, mathematical model of autism using new ways of engaging with the theory of child

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‘A vaccine for the nation'

South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns

Eun Kyung Choi and Young-Gyung Paik

, since a simple blood test could now be used in place of an invasive liver biopsy. By using the blood of an asymptomatic layperson, serological diagnosis and epidemiological studies of hepatitis also became possible. With aid of the serological advance, prominent hepatitis researcher Dr Chung Young Kim could study epidemiology in Korea, where viral hepatitis was endemic. Although the validity of Dr Kim and other physicians’ research could not be

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Bonnie Evans

developed from the early stages of life. The measurement of ‘autism’ within a total population was an exceptional undertaking, and thus it received much attention and went on to form the basis of a global definition. In fact, other Maudsley researchers were already starting to dabble in the use of statistical and epidemiological studies in order to identify

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Introduction

Perceiving, describing and modelling child development

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Bonnie Evans

that is told in this book. A unique political, cultural and legal climate in Britain in the 1970s and 1980s, along with the development of new sociological and epidemiological techniques of enquiry, supported the ever-increasing dominance of the autism category to describe developmental atypicalities in children up to the 1990s. It was in this cultural climate, in which researchers were preoccupied with developing

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Bonnie Evans

concept of ‘deprivation’ was expanded within psychological sciences and disciplines to cover all forms of ‘social deprivation’, not just ‘maternal deprivation’, and this is how new epidemiological researchers such as Tizard and Rutter understood it. 61 Writing in 1970, Michael Power from the Social Medicine Research Unit at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine argued

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Vaccination and the communist state

Polio in Eastern Europe

Dora Vargha

consider the social, economic and political history of the era. In a wider context, the looming threat of a nuclear war overshadowed the Cold War. Military and strategic considerations contributed to the formation of Big Science and affected research funding structures and research practices all over the world. 3 While the potential threat of destruction was pervasive, other results arising from the Second World War were equally

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Ana María Carrillo

’, Research Policy , 34 (2005), pp. 159–73. 61 C. Calderón and C. Campillo, ‘Epidemiología de la poliomielitis en México. Mecanismos de inmunización’ [Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in Mexico. Immunisation mechanisms], Boletín Epidemiológico [ Epidemiological Bulletin ], 24:4 (1960), pp. 117