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Duncan Wilson

The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.

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‘Where to draw the line?’

Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise

Duncan Wilson

4 ‘Where to draw the line?’ Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise The political enthusiasm for external oversight was made clear in 1982 when officials at the DHSS broke from the longstanding reliance on scientific and medical expertise and prioritised ‘an outside chairman’ for their public inquiry into IVF and embryo experiments. After a brief discussion about possible chairs, politicians chose the moral philosopher Mary Warnock to chair an inquiry in which, for the first time, individuals from other professions outnumbered doctors and scientists. Warnock

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‘Who’s for bioethics?’

Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

Duncan Wilson

3 ‘Who’s for bioethics?’ Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s Bioethics ceased to be an ‘American trend’ during the 1980s, when growing numbers of British outsiders publicly demanded greater external involvement in the development of guidelines for medicine and biological science. Their arguments were certainly successful. By the beginning of the 1990s, when the Guardian described the growing ‘ethics industry’, supporters of this new approach were influential public figures. One of the earliest and most high profile of these supporters was the

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Consolidating the ‘ethics industry’

A national ethics committee and bioethics during the 1990s

Duncan Wilson

representatives from several professions. The resulting Nuffield Council on Bioethics embodied the belief that external oversight was vital to maintaining public confidence in biomedical research. Its establishment bolstered media support for outside involvement with medicine and science, leading the Guardian to claim that there was ‘something of an ethics industry springing up’.3 But while council members believed that their independence from government secured public trust and prevented political interference, it also ensured that their advice carried little influence

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Duncan Wilson

central to understanding why bioethics Conclusion 259 emerged as a recognised term and approach in Britain. While calls for external involvement were by no means new, they gained traction in the 1980s because they dovetailed with the Conservative government’s enthusiasm for oversight, transparency and public accountability. Yet bioethics was not simply the top-down result of political pressure, and owes as much to the agency of specific individuals and groups as it does to changing sociopolitical contexts. Figures such as Ian Kennedy and Mary Warnock endorsed

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Oonagh McDonald

, became responsible for the appointment, compensation and oversight of the external auditor, rather than management. The Act also required lead audit partner rotation every five years instead of seven. Firms must have a system of internal accounting controls, which management is required to fully disclose and which the external auditors are obliged to test and evaluate. The Act clearly defines and places the responsibility for a company's financial statements on the CEO and CFO. Companies must certify (amongst other items) that they have reviewed

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Conclusion – Rohinton Mistry

International man of stories

Series:

Peter Morey

Conclusion 171 7 Conclusion – Rohinton Mistry: international man of stories Twentieth-century Indians … have voyaged widely in search of livelihoods and ideas, and they have discovered themselves through the clarities, oversights and yearnings that distance induces. The exact character of the homelands they have journeyed from has proved elusive, and often imaginary. Where in the world is India? (Sunil Khilnani, The Idea of India, p. 198) ROHINTON Mistry has produced fictions characterised by a style that is at once unobtrusive and apparently direct, but

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National women’s machinery

State-based institutions to advocate for gender equality

Series:

Anne Marie Goetz

, such as the office of the Prime Minister or President, or in a central economic planning unit, such as the Ministry of Planning. This WID/GAD unit is 72 COMPARATIVE ANALYSES responsible for promoting attention to gender issues and giving advice to various government units. Very often, however, it is under-equipped in terms of staff numbers and technical skills, and becomes the representative of a ‘special issue’ in an often resented or easily dismissed policy-pleading role. • Policy ‘oversight’ or ‘monitoring’ units, which may have rather more robust powers to the

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Strengthening the rule of law

Managing the criminal facets of war economies

Series:

Jenny H. Peterson

for the DSI insofar as it provides a moral justification for separating ‘illiberal’ leaders from their people (Kelsall, 2004). Portraying leaders as criminal as opposed to political actors justifies their removal and the insertion of leaders more palatable, or favourable to liberal goals and stability. In this sense, internationally led RoL measures can be seen as a tool which grants external powerful actors a great deal of control over states and regions recovering from conflict. Despite the fact that no senior elected politicians have ever been charged with

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Duncan Wilson

or the most high-profile American figure to endorse outside involvement. During 1968, for instance, the senator and former vice-president Walter Mondale responded to public discussion of organ transplants and genetic research by calling for a national Commission on Health and Society, which would act as a forum where laypeople and representatives of several professions could debate ‘the fundamental ethical and legal questions’ raised by biomedical research.134 Mondale argued that external oversight was necessary because the public were consumers with a stake in