Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women
Editor: Shirin M. Rai

The role of national machineries, as a way to promote the status of women, acquired international relevance during the World Conference on the International Women's Year, in Mexico City in 1975. This book reflects Division for the Advancement of Women's (DAW) long-standing interest in the area of national machineries, bringing together the experiences, research and insights of experts. The first part of the book sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the conceptual level. It reflects upon five aspects of democratization: devolution or decentralization; the role of political parties; monitoring and auditing systems; and the importance of increasing the presence of women within institutions of the state and government. The second part is a comparative analysis and sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the political level. A combination of factors, including civil society, state bodies and political actors, need to come together for national machineries to function effectively in the interest of gender equality. Next comes the 'lessons learned' by national machineries in mainstreaming gender. National machineries should have an achievable agenda, an important part of which must be 'a re-definition of gender issues. The third part contains case studies that build upon the specific experiences of national machineries in different countries. The successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming is also discussed.

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Conceptual links to institutional machineries

40 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS 2 Gender mainstreaming: conceptual links to institutional machineries kathleen staudt We enter the new millennium with a quarter-century of experience in reflection and practice about women and subsequently gender in development. This experience builds on the voices of many diverse people who share stakes in and support a broad definition of development, used here to mean the enhancement of human capacity in a world that sustains, rather than undermines, its natural resources.1 Such enhancement can hardly occur in a world lacking good

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Institutionalized gesture politics?

GENDER EQUALITY IN UGANDA 203 10 The national machinery for gender equality in Uganda: institutionalized gesture politics? joy c. kwesiga Introduction National machineries for the advancement of women are an accepted feature of many United Nations (UN) member states, having progressively gained ground during the 1975– 85 UN Decade for Women and in subsequent UN Conferences on women which called for their strengthening. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) has observed that lack of appropriate structures officially mandated to implement the agenda for the

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
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Introduction Like all concepts in political theory, gender has a history. Unlike most of these concepts, though, the history of gender is comparatively short. The term itself originated in the nineteenth century, arising in the context of descriptive and diagnostic social sciences of human behaviour. It was only adopted into political theory, as a result of a political process of struggle, about 100

in Political concepts

146 CASE STUDIES 7 National machinery for gender equality in Sweden and other Nordic countries birgitta åseskog Introduction In this chapter I want to describe the ‘Nordic model’ of national machinery for gender equality. I want to show the similarities between the countries, but also the differences. The official Nordic cooperation on gender equality, conducted by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is based on the development of pilot projects and reports on priority areas. It provides excellent opportunities to develop new methods and strategies and is a forum

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?

THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE 8 Gender awareness and the national machineries in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe zuzana jezerska Introduction: the basic problem of identification and terminology The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) saw fundamental changes to their political and social systems towards the end of the twentieth century. The processes of change affected most aspects of the social and political lives of the citizens of these countries. However, men and women experienced differently the burdens and gains of

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
The Ecuadorian experience

5 The role of the women’s movement in institutionalizing a gender focus in public policy: the Ecuadorian experience silvia vega ugalde 1 Introduction The institutionalization of a gender focus in state policy is a long, complex process. It presupposes intervention in a variety of areas and further presupposes the active presence in society of actors who campaign, promote and lobby in order that the gender dimension becomes visible in political and social relations. In this chapter I present the experience of the Coordinadora Politica de Mujeres Ecuatorianas

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?

GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE PHILIPPINES 131 6 The National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, the women’s movement and gender mainstreaming in the Philippines1 jurgette honculada 2 and rosalinda pineda ofreneo 3 Introduction The Philippine experience shows that a vibrant women’s movement plays a critical role vis-à-vis a national women’s machinery — lobbying for its creation, providing leadership and direction, pioneering new initiatives such as gender training that are key components of gender mainstreaming, and serving as a gadfly when government fails

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
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56 DISCIPLINES 4 Gender Studies shirin m. rai In order to explore feminist perspectives on democratization we need to understand both feminist frameworks and methodologies. This chapter outlines what a feminist framework might be and then uses this perspective to analyse feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. Democratization can be defined as the process of ‘making democratic’ regimes, practices and discourses of public power. Luckham and White (1996b: 2–8) have identified four areas of inquiry for democratization analysts: (1

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard

chapter2 21/12/04 11:09 am Page 39 2 Gendering imperialism: Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard Gayatri Spivak’s work on nineteenth-century imperialist literature directs feminist analysis to the narrative dynamics of human reproduction and production.1 She examines the codification of women as racial reproducers, and its relation to the conception of women as imperial producers of human subjectivity itself. Exciting though this direction is, feminist critics also need to further explore how economic production directly informs, and generates, literary

in Postcolonial contraventions