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Bonnie Evans

Diplomatic Corps, autism researchers, advocates and political representatives including Sarah Brown, wife of the then British prime minister, Gordon Brown, and Ban Soon-taek, wife of United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who chaired the discussions. Suzanne Wright, co-founder of the charity Autism Speaks, stated that, ‘ Autism is a global health crisis that knows no

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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

Series:

Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg

to produce the vaccines that publicly run programmes required was long taken as a sign of sovereign responsibility and authority – an authority that is being relinquished in many countries, going back to the the 1980s. 4 The remaining chapters hark back to earlier episodes of vaccination controversy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. An afterword relates disturbing shortcuts taken by an elite fraternity of global health

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MMR

Series:

Gareth Millward

As the pertussis crisis faded into memory, it appeared that Britain had once again bought into the vaccine narrative. Immunisation rates increased over the 1980s, and new vaccines offered the British public even greater protection from infectious disease. Parents were well aware of the vaccines on offer, and broadly considered these to be safe and effective. 1 The iconic new public health threat, HIV, did not yet have a vaccine; but there was great optimism that one would eventually be found. 2 Then, in the late 1990s, another crisis

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Series:

Gareth Millward

diphtheria or smallpox vaccination in the 1950s, epidemiologically and politically derived goals came from within the Department of Health and from internationally agreed standards with the WHO. Increasingly, outbreaks of manageable diseases became an embarrassment to the British authorities and the British public. During the MMR crisis, part of the education and risk communication campaign emphasised how other nations used immunisation. Advanced nations were supposed to avoid outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases; less-developed nations experienced them regularly

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Series:

Gareth Millward

of the national government and a deeper political crisis in the welfare state. Finally, Chapter 5 brings these themes together and examines hesitancy , a concept that made an entry into global vaccination policy around the year 2010, but that is clearly a product of the lessons that public health has taken from its own history. Recent vaccine crises and narratives that changing approaches to the meaning of “health” in the World Health Organization have led social scientists to focus on individuals’ decision-making processes. These start

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Conclusion

Post-crisis Asia – economic recovery, September 11, 2001 and the challenges ahead

Shalendra D. Sharma

1997. In particular, while the El Niño and La Niña weather phenomena devastated agricultural production in 1997–98, the favorable weather conditions in 1999 and the first half of 2000 have helped Indonesia and the Philippines to reap bumper crops of rice and other basic agricultural commodities. In addition to creating agricultural employment, this has also eased burdens 343 The Asian financial crisis on the overstretched social safety nets and enabled vulnerable households better to meet their consumption needs. The global economic slowdown and September 11, 2001

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Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

dominant public health problem; many other infectious diseases compete for attention and resources. Consequently, there is no global consensus on the public health importance of seasonal influenza and national vaccination programmes are not a top priority in many low- and middle-income countries. The pandemics that appear irregularly a few times each century spread with increasing speed. Several studies have shown that global air travel is now a

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The uneasy politics of epidemic aid

The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958

Paul Greenough

time, because not only was its future global leadership unsuspected, but the diplomatic significance of foreign assistance in humanitarian crises was still being established. 2 Most observers at the time assumed that the long-established Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and the newly founded World Health Organization (WHO) would be the key international players. However, an opening for CDC came when smallpox and cholera broke out

Open Access (free)

Series:

Gareth Millward

is a long-standing one. This applied to the state's – or the public sector's – provision of public health. 3 Britain was a nation to be protected from foreign diseases. 4 Anxieties were raised whenever an outbreak occurred – a sign of how rare smallpox had become, but also of the dread which it still elicited in the general public. Smallpox represented Britain's vulnerability to outside threats in a world of global mass transport by air and sea. And, as Roberta Bivins has shown, it came to be symbolic of Britain's relationship with her empire as attention shifted