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Bonnie Evans

Diplomatic Corps, autism researchers, advocates and political representatives including Sarah Brown, wife of the then British prime minister, Gordon Brown, and Ban Soon-taek, wife of United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who chaired the discussions. Suzanne Wright, co-founder of the charity Autism Speaks, stated that, ‘ Autism is a global health crisis that knows no

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Post-Humanitarianism

Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

Mark Duffield

’s subsidy to a declining rate of profit. With fewer opportunities for men in the commodity chains that constitute the emerging global gig economy, so to speak, women are increasingly unlikely to withdraw from the labour force during their child-rearing years ( Dunaway, 2014 ). As the unequal distribution of chronic ill-health, under-nutrition and morbidity attest ( WHO, 2017 ), the social costs of this hyper-exploitation have been transferred with deleterious effects to a contained and largely urban precariat. Reflecting the parasitism of the

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When the Music Stops

Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Stephen Hopgood

redistribution of power at the international level (from one dominant state since the 1980s, the US, to two now) stems from the rise of China. A kind of bipolarity – a system dominated by two centres of power – has been re-established in global politics. As in other areas – trade, environment, security, public health, transport – the return to bipolarity has had a major impact. The implications of this are simple but profound: rules and norms that conflict in some way with the preferences of the Chinese government will no longer necessarily be

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The Changing Faces of UNRWA

From the Global to the Local

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

the fields of health, social services, education, microfinance and direct cash emergency programmes – its budget and programming have been precarious since the agency’s inception, as has Palestinian refugees’ access to its services. Funded through fluctuating annual bilateral donations, donor support ‘has generally failed to keep pace with the rapid growth of UNRWA’s clientele… consequently the Agency has faced a worsening financial crisis’ ( Brynen, 2003 , 157). 9 The cumulative effects of this ongoing financial crisis meant that by mid

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Mel Bunce

these forms of disinformation. But they have not yet closely examined their impact in humanitarian crises. This is a remarkable oversight. In humanitarian crises, false information can have life-and-death consequences. As Jeanne Bourgault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Internews, states, false information can ‘undercut efforts to improve health, make disasters worse than they already are, alienate vulnerable populations, and even incite violence’ (quoted in Igoe, 2017 ). This article introduces the emerging research about online

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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

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Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg

to produce the vaccines that publicly run programmes required was long taken as a sign of sovereign responsibility and authority – an authority that is being relinquished in many countries, going back to the the 1980s. 4 The remaining chapters hark back to earlier episodes of vaccination controversy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. An afterword relates disturbing shortcuts taken by an elite fraternity of global health

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MMR

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Gareth Millward

As the pertussis crisis faded into memory, it appeared that Britain had once again bought into the vaccine narrative. Immunisation rates increased over the 1980s, and new vaccines offered the British public even greater protection from infectious disease. Parents were well aware of the vaccines on offer, and broadly considered these to be safe and effective. 1 The iconic new public health threat, HIV, did not yet have a vaccine; but there was great optimism that one would eventually be found. 2 Then, in the late 1990s, another crisis

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Gareth Millward

diphtheria or smallpox vaccination in the 1950s, epidemiologically and politically derived goals came from within the Department of Health and from internationally agreed standards with the WHO. Increasingly, outbreaks of manageable diseases became an embarrassment to the British authorities and the British public. During the MMR crisis, part of the education and risk communication campaign emphasised how other nations used immunisation. Advanced nations were supposed to avoid outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases; less-developed nations experienced them regularly

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Series:

Gareth Millward

of the national government and a deeper political crisis in the welfare state. Finally, Chapter 5 brings these themes together and examines hesitancy , a concept that made an entry into global vaccination policy around the year 2010, but that is clearly a product of the lessons that public health has taken from its own history. Recent vaccine crises and narratives that changing approaches to the meaning of “health” in the World Health Organization have led social scientists to focus on individuals’ decision-making processes. These start