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Bonnie Evans

Diplomatic Corps, autism researchers, advocates and political representatives including Sarah Brown, wife of the then British prime minister, Gordon Brown, and Ban Soon-taek, wife of United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who chaired the discussions. Suzanne Wright, co-founder of the charity Autism Speaks, stated that, ‘ Autism is a global health crisis that knows no

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Post-Humanitarianism

Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

Mark Duffield

’s subsidy to a declining rate of profit. With fewer opportunities for men in the commodity chains that constitute the emerging global gig economy, so to speak, women are increasingly unlikely to withdraw from the labour force during their child-rearing years ( Dunaway, 2014 ). As the unequal distribution of chronic ill-health, under-nutrition and morbidity attest ( WHO, 2017 ), the social costs of this hyper-exploitation have been transferred with deleterious effects to a contained and largely urban precariat. Reflecting the parasitism of the

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Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

its legitimacy. Exacerbated by experiences of conflict and instability, weak health sectors and economies and an eroded social contract set the foundations for the crisis of 2014. The place of these countries in global history and contemporary dependencies was re-inscribed in the nature of the response. Under the PHEIC (Public Health Emergency of International Concern) declared by the World Health Assembly on 8 August 2014, it was conducted through a joint partnership between the international community and governments of the Mano River region in a manner heavily

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When the Music Stops

Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Stephen Hopgood

redistribution of power at the international level (from one dominant state since the 1980s, the US, to two now) stems from the rise of China. A kind of bipolarity – a system dominated by two centres of power – has been re-established in global politics. As in other areas – trade, environment, security, public health, transport – the return to bipolarity has had a major impact. The implications of this are simple but profound: rules and norms that conflict in some way with the preferences of the Chinese government will no longer necessarily be

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The Changing Faces of UNRWA

From the Global to the Local

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

the fields of health, social services, education, microfinance and direct cash emergency programmes – its budget and programming have been precarious since the agency’s inception, as has Palestinian refugees’ access to its services. Funded through fluctuating annual bilateral donations, donor support ‘has generally failed to keep pace with the rapid growth of UNRWA’s clientele… consequently the Agency has faced a worsening financial crisis’ ( Brynen, 2003 , 157). 9 The cumulative effects of this ongoing financial crisis meant that by mid

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War Breaks Out

Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

Bentiu and Leer, violence associated with the dynamics of offensives extended to the hospitals run or supported by the Dutch section of MSF (MSF-Holland, hereafter MSF-H). What motivated these specific acts of violence? And what were the effects of these attacks on the provision of healthcare in the area? Concerns expressed over the last decade by medical aid organisations and public health institutions regarding attacks on health facilities and personnel have generated a growing demand for multi-country or global quantitative studies on the issue. In contrast

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Mel Bunce

these forms of disinformation. But they have not yet closely examined their impact in humanitarian crises. This is a remarkable oversight. In humanitarian crises, false information can have life-and-death consequences. As Jeanne Bourgault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Internews, states, false information can ‘undercut efforts to improve health, make disasters worse than they already are, alienate vulnerable populations, and even incite violence’ (quoted in Igoe, 2017 ). This article introduces the emerging research about online

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All Lives Are Equal but Some Lives Are More Equal than Others

Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

Miriam Bradley

civilian population in contexts of armed conflict is evident in the range of policy statements, handbooks and guidelines ( Global Protection Cluster Working Group, 2010 ; ICRC, 2008 ; InterAction, 2006 ; O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007 ; Oxfam, 2005 ; Paul, 1999 ; Slim and Bonwick, 2005 ). Institutional staff-security policies also began to appear in the 1990s ( Cutts and Dingle, 1995 ; ICRC, 1999 ). In 2000, the Humanitarian Practice Network published a Good Practice Review on Operational Security in Violent Environments (hereafter, GPR). Concerned not only

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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

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Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg

to produce the vaccines that publicly run programmes required was long taken as a sign of sovereign responsibility and authority – an authority that is being relinquished in many countries, going back to the the 1980s. 4 The remaining chapters hark back to earlier episodes of vaccination controversy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. An afterword relates disturbing shortcuts taken by an elite fraternity of global health