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Bonnie Evans

Diplomatic Corps, autism researchers, advocates and political representatives including Sarah Brown, wife of the then British prime minister, Gordon Brown, and Ban Soon-taek, wife of United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who chaired the discussions. Suzanne Wright, co-founder of the charity Autism Speaks, stated that, ‘ Autism is a global health crisis that knows no

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The metamorphosis of autism

A history of child development in Britain

Series:

Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

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Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume and Christine Holmberg

to produce the vaccines that publicly run programmes required was long taken as a sign of sovereign responsibility and authority – an authority that is being relinquished in many countries, going back to the the 1980s. 4 The remaining chapters hark back to earlier episodes of vaccination controversy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. An afterword relates disturbing shortcuts taken by an elite fraternity of global health

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Conclusion

Post-crisis Asia – economic recovery, September 11, 2001 and the challenges ahead

Shalendra D. Sharma

1997. In particular, while the El Niño and La Niña weather phenomena devastated agricultural production in 1997–98, the favorable weather conditions in 1999 and the first half of 2000 have helped Indonesia and the Philippines to reap bumper crops of rice and other basic agricultural commodities. In addition to creating agricultural employment, this has also eased burdens 343 The Asian financial crisis on the overstretched social safety nets and enabled vulnerable households better to meet their consumption needs. The global economic slowdown and September 11, 2001

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Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

dominant public health problem; many other infectious diseases compete for attention and resources. Consequently, there is no global consensus on the public health importance of seasonal influenza and national vaccination programmes are not a top priority in many low- and middle-income countries. The pandemics that appear irregularly a few times each century spread with increasing speed. Several studies have shown that global air travel is now a

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The uneasy politics of epidemic aid

The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958

Paul Greenough

time, because not only was its future global leadership unsuspected, but the diplomatic significance of foreign assistance in humanitarian crises was still being established. 2 Most observers at the time assumed that the long-established Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and the newly founded World Health Organization (WHO) would be the key international players. However, an opening for CDC came when smallpox and cholera broke out

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Beyond the Asian crisis

The evolving international financial architecture

Shalendra D. Sharma

, the rapid spread and severity of the Asian crisis, the enormous size of the rescue packages, and the realization that such bailouts could not be continued indefinitely finally forced the G-7 governments to look seriously at ways to strengthen the international financial system. Since then, an ever-growing list of architects have come up with proposal after proposal on 284 Beyond the crisis how to reform the existing regime and construct a “new international financial architecture.” Although there is general agreement on the need to strengthen the global financial system

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Vaccination and the communist state

Polio in Eastern Europe

Dora Vargha

Vaccination. Virological and Serological Surveillance in Czechoslovakia, 1958–59 and 1960’, British Medical Journal , 1:5285 (1962); D. Slonim, ‘Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis. On the 80th Anniversary of the Founding of the National Institute of Health’, Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie ; 54:3 (2005). 2

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Introduction

Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

Series:

Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

experiences. 13 Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins Notes  1 See for example:  P.  D’Antonio, J.  A. Fairman, J.  C. Whelan (eds), Routledge Handbook on the Global History of Nursing (Abingdon and New  York:  Routledge, 2013); E.  Fleischmann, S.  Grypma, M.  Marten and I.  M. Okkenhaug (eds), Transnational and Historical Perspectives on Global Health, Welfare and Humanitarianism (Kristiansand: Portal Forlag, 2013).  2 See for example:  R.  MacLeod and M.  Lewis (eds), Disease, Medicine and Empire:  Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of European Expansion

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Series:

Rima D. Apple

than that of the commonly told story of Florence Nightingale in the Crimea. But imperial work was not limited to military campaigns. These chapters reveal the many other facets and versions of nurses’ work within the imperial project: crisis intervention, public health, hospital building, health education for the subaltern, and the like. The conditions nurses faced were highly varied. Western nurses often found themselves in strange and difficult physical surroundings and living conditions, such as the heat and humidity of the Dutch West Indies, the cave hospitals of