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Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

a majority of humanitarian practitioners, we can define it as a commitment to three things: the equal moral worth of all human lives (i.e. non-discrimination on principle), the moral priority of the claims of individuals over the authority claims of any collective entity – from nations to churches to classes to families – and a belief that as a moral commitment (one that transcends any sociological or political boundary) there is a just and legitimate reason to intervene in any and all circumstances where human beings suffer (even if

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

reconciled with mass killings, provided they can be classified as ‘military necessities’. Should we just dispense with IHL, then? No, because it helps humanitarian organisations create negotiation space with governments – the ones that accept the principle, of course, and not all do, although many agree to it. Humanitarian organisations can use those governments’ commitments to IHL to support their requests for authorisation to act and to bolster their status as legitimate actors in conflicts. Neither a moral code to be brandished nor a relic to be dismissed, IHL helps

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A history of child development in Britain

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development

not a timeless entity but has its origins in the mid nineteenth century. It was only in the early twentieth century that the ‘social sciences’ began to achieve their most powerful form in political thought and in the government and management of individual lives via the definition of workers’ rights and the provision of welfare, educational and other ‘social’ services. This model of society united

in The metamorphosis of autism
Towards a union or not?

The European Union’s dilemma 125 7 The European Union’s dilemma: towards a union or not? From its humble beginnings, [the Roman Empire] has grown so much that it is now suffering under its own size. (Titus Livius)1 Summary In March 1999 the European Commission, the European Union’s executive branch, resigned under accusations of fraud, nepotism and mismanagement, leading to intensive soul-searching as to what could be the right form of management for the EU. How could the democratic aspects of the emerging entity be enhanced? How could democracy be improved

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state

rationale of this book that the Colonial Medical Service is one of these institutions, and that the time has come for its history to benefit from new eyes and new perspectives. When my book, Practising Colonial Medicine , on the East African Colonial Medical Service was published in 2007, I was sure that I had captured something of the ethos and experience of the cohort of 424 British government doctors that

in Beyond the state
Open Access (free)
Governmental power and authority in democratic ecological governance

powerful than others in the processes of mutual adjustment among actors and networks striving to control crucial resources. However, networks are first and foremost self-organising and self-governing entities, ’not controlled by any single superordinate actor, not even the government’ (Kickert 1993:275). As cited already in Chapter 1, this view holds that because ‘integrated networks resist government steering, develop their own policies and mould their environments’, governance comes close to ‘governing without government’ (Rhodes 1996:652, 658). Against this view of

in Sweden and ecological governance
The Ecuadorian experience

extent to which participation in processes of this type has led to real improvements in the situation of women. Fourth, given the limited knowledge and assimilation of the gender focus among political authorities in general, individuals, personal contacts and friendships with government officials have been almost decisive in identifying points of entry and support for initiatives proposed. The presence of special offices and individuals charged with gender issues within ministries is useful in this sense in order to have reliable counterparts within state entities. It

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Open Access (free)
Europeanisation and Belgian federalism

fundamentally changed Belgian framework brought about by Belgian federalisation. Co-operation and co-ordination have become essential at the administrative and political levels. Federated entities are very sensitive on specific issues such as culture, the right of European citizens to vote in local elections, and the concept of subsidiarity. In its memorandum for the 1996 IGC (October 1995), the Belgian government pointed out that subsidiarity is not only a ‘downward’ principle – from Union to States – but also an ‘upward’ principle if action at the Union level is appropriate

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
One way to Europeanisation

from the two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira, and from the Prime Minister’s office. The post of National Co-ordinator for Free Movement of People in the European Space was created in 1996 and is a direct consequence of the TEU and the Schengen Agreement. Until 1996, K4 committee affairs and co-ordination on Schengen were handled by two separate entities. To guarantee coherence and efficiency, the government decided to set up this institutional body, which functions in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, in co-ordination with the corresponding departments of the

in Fifteen into one?