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Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada and Róisín Read

Most mainstream discourses on humanitarian security would not consider the community engagement of a team of anthropologists in three West African countries during the Ebola epidemic of 2014–16 as directly related to security – and their article in this special issue on ‘Security and Protection’ hardly touches on security as its own topic. Instead, it provides a detailed account of the need for a thorough understanding of social relationships when defining, and thus securing, humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

of their operational environments. Indeed, the salience of security management as a policy concern for humanitarian organisations has ballooned in recent decades. The aid industry has directed substantial efforts towards bureaucratising security management ( Schneiker, 2015 ; Beerli, 2018 ), raising the public visibility of the security risks that humanitarians face in the field (see, for example, Action Against Hunger, n.d.), probing the causes of attacks against aid workers ( Stoddard et al. , 2012 , 2017 ), and analysing and debating organisational approaches

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

Humanitarianism’ , International Review of the Red Cross , 96 : 894 , 641 – 8 . Neuman , M. and Weissman , F. (eds) ( 2016 ), Saving Lives and Staying Alive: Humanitarian Security in the Age of Risk Management ( London : Hurst and Co ). Powell , C. ( 2001 ), ‘Remarks to the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

; InterAction, 2006 ; O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007 ; Oxfam, 2005 ; Paul, 1999 ; Slim and Bonwick, 2005 ). Institutional staff-security policies also began to appear in the 1990s ( Cutts and Dingle, 1995 ; ICRC, 1999 ). In 2000, the Humanitarian Practice Network published a Good Practice Review on Operational Security in Violent Environments (hereafter, GPR). Concerned not only with the safety of aid-agency staff but also with ensuring safe and continued programming and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The Journal of Humanitarian Affairs is an exciting, new open access journal hosted jointly by The Humanitarian Affairs Team at Save the Children UK, and Centre de Réflexion sur l’Action et les Savoirs Humanitaires MSF (Paris) and the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute at the University of Manchester. It will contribute to current thinking around humanitarian governance, policy and practice with academic rigour and political courage. The journal will challenge contributors and readers to think critically about humanitarian issues that are often approached from reductionist assumptions about what experience and evidence mean. It will cover contemporary, historical, methodological and applied subject matters and will bring together studies, debates and literature reviews. The journal will engage with these through diverse online content, including peer reviewed articles, expert interviews, policy analyses, literature reviews and ‘spotlight’ features.

Our rationale can be summed up as follows: the sector is growing and is facing severe ethical and practical challenges. The Journal of Humanitarian Affairs will provide a space for serious and inter-disciplinary academic and practitioner exchanges on pressing issues of international interest.

The journal aims to be a home and platform for leading thinkers on humanitarian affairs, a place where ideas are floated, controversies are aired and new research is published and scrutinised. Areas in which submissions will be considered include humanitarian financing, migrations and responses, the history of humanitarian aid, failed humanitarian interventions, media representations of humanitarianism, the changing landscape of humanitarianism, the response of states to foreign interventions and critical debates on concepts such as resilience or security.

Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

activities to the DPRK, which has varied depending on the political climate. In recent years, the international humanitarian system has been subject to restrictions in the form of unilateral and United Nations Security Council (UNSC) sanctions. As of 2017, Americans must also apply for US government permission for DPRK travel. This paper goes beyond the policy of sanctions exemptions and asks how sanctions are affecting humanitarian work in practice. The following subsection reviews the methodology used in the research. A literature review rounds out the introduction

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The conflict in Kosovo represents a significant watershed in post-Cold War international security. Interpreting its political and operational significance should reveal important clues for understanding international security in the new millennium. This text analyses the international response to the crisis in Kosovo and its broader implications, by examining its diplomatic, military and humanitarian features. Despite the widely held perception that the conflict in Kosovo has implications for international security, unravelling them can be challenging, as it remains an event replete with paradoxes. There are many such paradoxes. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) entered into the conflict ostensibly to head off a humanitarian catastrophe, only to accelerate the catastrophe by engaging in a bombing campaign; the political aims of all the major players contradicted the military means chosen by them in the conflict. The Russian role in the diplomatic efforts demonstrated that NATO did not want Russia to be involved but in the end needed its involvement. Russia opposed the bombing campaign but ultimately did not have enough power or influence to rise above a role as NATO's messenger; the doctrinal hurdles to achieving ‘immaculate coercion’ by use of air power alone seemed to tumble in the face of apparent success; it is ultimately unclear how or why NATO succeeded.

Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

), Disaster as Opportunity? Building Back Better in Aceh, Myanmar and Haiti ( HPG Working Paper, Overseas Development Institute ). Flinn , B. and Echegaray , M. ( 2016 ), Stories of Recovery, CARE Philippines Post Haiyan/Yolanda Shelter Response ( CARE International UK ). Global Shelter Cluster ( 2018 ), Shelter & Settlements: The Foundation of Humanitarian Response. Strategy 2018–2022 ( Global Shelter Cluster ). Inter-Agency Common Feedback Project ( 2017 ), Reconstruction and Food Security and Livelihood ( Inter-Agency Common Feedback

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

The World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) in Istanbul in May 2016 brought the theme of innovation to the fore yet again. Innovation in a broad sense has arguably always been at the heart of any humanitarian action, at least in the basic sense of the word, as having to constantly adapt and adjust to complex and unexpected situations – to ‘innovate’, in other words. In the understanding of the WHS and within the UN system more broadly, innovation was to be strongly linked to cost effectiveness and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

militaries and humanitarian aid agencies can be beneficial for the timely delivery of aid. This engagement can take many different forms, from mere coexistence to communication, coordination and direct cooperation. It is also often unavoidable when trying to gain access to areas controlled by military or non-state armed actors. However, such engagement also comes with risks. Sometimes these are security risks, or risks to the humanitarian principles of impartiality and neutrality. Crucially, it is difficult to assess these risks and/or potential benefits in the absence of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs