In this article we explore the relational materiality of fragments of human
cadavers used to produce DNA profiles of the unidentified dead at a forensic
genetics police laboratory in Rio de Janeiro. Our point of departure is an
apparently simple problem: how to discard already tested materials in order to
open up physical space for incoming tissue samples. However, during our study we
found that transforming human tissues and bone fragments into disposable trash
requires a tremendous institutional investment of energy, involving negotiations
with public health authorities, criminal courts and public burial grounds. The
dilemma confronted by the forensic genetic lab suggests not only how some
fragments are endowed with more personhood than others, but also how the very
distinction between human remains and trash depends on a patchwork of multiple
logics that does not necessarily perform according to well-established or
The ethics and politics of memory in an age of mass culture
those disseminated through community life – increasingly
inadequate. At the same moment, the cinema and the technologised mass
culture that it helped inaugurate transformed memory by making possible
an unprecedented circulation of images and narratives about the past.
Thanks to these new technologies of memory on the one hand and
commodification on the other, the kinds of memories that one has
-century body measurements and fingerprinting to later forms, such as DNA, eye scanning, and digitalization.
Authorities had to learn how to select certain details, traits, and
elements from overflowing information in order to produce a passport
system, the paramount form of identification record. What kind of
information should be selected and represented in the passport or
its forerunner, the travel pass? As Frances Stonor Saunders (2016:
8) has noted, identification markers and forms are dependent upon
existing technologies. The advent of cheap paper in the sixteenth
Human remains and identification presents a pioneering investigation into the practices and methodologies used in the search for and exhumation of dead bodies resulting from mass violence. Previously absent from forensic debate, social scientists and historians here confront historical and contemporary exhumations with the application of social context to create an innovative and interdisciplinary dialogue, enlightening the political, social and legal aspects of mass crime and its aftermaths. Through a ground-breaking selection of international case studies, Human remains and identification argues that the emergence of new technologies to facilitate the identification of dead bodies has led to a “forensic turn”, normalising exhumations as a method of dealing with human remains en masse. However, are these exhumations always made for legitimate reasons? Multidisciplinary in scope, the book will appeal to readers interested in understanding this crucial phase of mass violence’s aftermath, including researchers in history, anthropology, sociology, forensic science, law, politics and modern warfare.
This book brings together a range of sociologists and economists to study the role of demand and consumption in the innovative process. Starting with a broad conceptual overview of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption, it goes on to offer different approaches to the economics of demand and innovation through an evolutionary framework, before reviewing how consumption fits into evolutionary models of economic development. The book then looks at food consumption as an example of innovation by demand, including an examination of the dynamic nature of socially constituted consumption routines. It includes an analysis of how African Americans use consumption to express collective identity and discusses the involvement of consumers in innovation, focusing on how consumer needs may be incorporated in the design of high-tech products. It also argues for the need to build an economic sociology of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features.
The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand,
and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that
violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state)
health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence
against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human
rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence
against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of
the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the
horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’
dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional
and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept
of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence
against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on
the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised
in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an
innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due
diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment).
The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the
ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
affected by a variety of different facets. He argued that both the
technology and the rules acted to influence performance.
Haake ( 2009 ) was particularly
interested in the way that technologies had a causal effect on sporting
performance. In the sports he chose to examine he found a very direct
relationship. This kind of work is important in understanding
technologies, and a statistical methodology allows the numerical
identification of direct effects in sports where measurements are key.
The ANT methodology
is saying is that this is the only, or certainly the main, viable form of real politics today.
There is, then, a continuous thread that connects Feenberg’s involvement with the student protests in the 1960s to his identification of technology as the principal locus of contemporary politics. Digital technology has opened up what seemed to be closed off, namely, the possibility of a political challenge to the system that, just a few decades ago, had been called ‘technocracy’. It is perhaps ironic that that this opening appears in the very dimension of social life
identification with any specific set of aesthetic values and focus instead on those occasions when the meaning of technology is placed in question – any kind of question – by social actors.
The dominant idea of technology operative in such experiences corresponds not to that of a centralised hegemonic power but rather to a presence that is always also a representation, which can be placed in question and reworked with the relevant skill and acquired knowledge. In the revised account of the role of the aesthetic suggested here it remains central to technical politics. However