Melanie Klinkner

In the aftermath of conflict and gross human rights violations, victims have a right to know what happened to their loved ones. Such a right is compromised if mass graves are not adequately protected to preserve evidence, facilitate identification and repatriation of the dead and enable a full and effective investigation to be conducted. Despite guidelines for investigations of the missing, and legal obligations under international law, it is not expressly clear how these mass graves are best legally protected and by whom. This article asks why, to date, there are no unified mass-grave protection guidelines that could serve as a model for states, authorities or international bodies when faced with gross human rights violations or armed conflicts resulting in mass graves. The paper suggests a practical agenda for working towards a more comprehensive set of legal guidelines to protect mass graves.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

private dialogue Soft measures, e.g. passive protection through presence Vulnerability reduction – reducing people’s exposure to threats Hard measures, e.g. fortified aid compounds Soft measures, e.g. the provision of material assistance and legal status Mitigating the consequences – providing support to the victims of violence after an incident has

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of SOS MEDITERRANEE Suisse
Juliano Fiori

to see how exactly we can engage with and mobilise people. SOS was not conceived as something to exist forever. It is an ad hoc initiative, which will stop as soon as there is an institutionalised, legal way for people to cross the Mediterranean to seek asylum without drowning. So it’s really not built as an NGO. It’s a gathering of people from different backgrounds who are willing to work together for a very specific reason, and it will be dismantled as soon as the political answer is considered satisfactory, even if that takes a while. JF: SOS

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada and Róisín Read

Most mainstream discourses on humanitarian security would not consider the community engagement of a team of anthropologists in three West African countries during the Ebola epidemic of 2014–16 as directly related to security – and their article in this special issue on ‘Security and Protection’ hardly touches on security as its own topic. Instead, it provides a detailed account of the need for a thorough understanding of social relationships when defining, and thus securing, humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emmanuelle Strub

by armed men on the main roads made regular aid delivery to the IDP (internally displaced person) camps difficult. Was armed protection necessary to ensure access to vulnerable populations? Five years later, in 1997, three MdM-Spain volunteers were killed and a fourth wounded in a targeted attack in Ruhengeri, Northern Rwanda. In Chechnya and the former Yugoslavia, NGO personnel were being kidnapped or targeted. Those incidents made security a tangible issue for MdM

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

informed contemplation on the political function of IHL and what we can expect from it. The Soldier, the Legal Expert and the Rescuer Let us begin with the first Geneva Convention, the starting point of contemporary IHL; it was signed on 22 August 1864 1 and did not even mention the word ‘humanitarian’. In ten articles occupying two pages, its subject (as reflected by its title) was ‘the amelioration of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field’. It can be summarised in just two

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

effectiveness’ ( Redfield, 2012 ) and how the sector should relate to a developing global regulatory framework that is accompanied by an evolving global ‘techno-legal consciousness’ ( Sandvik, 2018 ), where data protection and privacy are seen as basic rights ( Hosein and Nyst, 2013 ). My objective is to interrogate the ambiguous position of digital humanitarian goods developed at the interface of the affordances of emergency response contexts, the accelerating digitisation of beneficiary bodies

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Palestinians have remained in a precarious protracted refugee situation since then. They have been unable to access international refugee protection , or the durable solutions that the UNCPP had been mandated to secure for the Palestinian refugee community ( Akram, 2014 : 228). In effect, ‘political impasse, lack of support, and de-funding by the UN’ led to the UNCPP ‘shrinking’ to such an extent that it disappeared, in spite of never being legally terminated by the UNGA ( ibid .: 229). The intertwined risks of defunding, institutional shrinking and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

forced to do the same internally for fear of leaks. Lastly, transparency is essential to inform volunteers about the dangers they face and limit their exposure in high-risk areas. While the code of silence is supposed to protect aid organisations from future kidnappers as well as legal and reputational risks, it may expose them to the latter. In other words, they may end up being condemned by the law and public opinion for not having adequately informed their staff about

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

( Boltanski and Chiapello, 2005 ). Jobs for life, intergenerational career structures, apprenticeships, subsidised canteens, social clubs, sports facilities and company pensions have disappeared. In the mid twentieth century, for the white working class at least, welfarism together with a Fordist employment culture provided a high degree of protection against market forces. Indeed, this was a defining political feature of the West’s racial- and gender-inflected Cold War social-democratic settlement ( Streeck, 2017 ). Over the last two or three decades

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs