Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

than informal arrangements. Moreover, inclusive business models can work with these shadow arrangements. Importantly, they can free-ride on existing community mutuality, such as local resource sharing and informal credit. External businesses, we are told, ‘can count on these communal processes to fill gaps in the markets of the poor’ ( UNDP, 2008 : 9). While precarity has been absorbed, the costs of its social reproduction have been externalised. Rather like the security guard that must supply his own dog, these costs have to be met by the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Rainer Bauböck in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers
Editor: Rainer Bauböck

This book addresses the major theoretical and practical issues of the forms of citizenship and access to citizenship in different types of polity, and the specification and justification of rights of non-citizen immigrants as well as non-resident citizens. It also addresses the conditions under which norms governing citizenship can legitimately vary. The book discusses the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). They complement each other because they serve distinct purposes of democratic inclusion. The book proposes that democratic inclusion principles specify a relation between an individual or group that has an inclusion claim and a political community that aims to achieve democratic legitimacy for its political decisions and institutions. It contextualizes the principle of stakeholder inclusion, which provides the best answer to the question of democratic boundaries of membership, by applying it to polities of different types. The book distinguishes state, local and regional polities and argues that they differ in their membership character. It examines how a principle of stakeholder inclusion applies to polities of different types. The book illustrates the difference between consensual and automatic modes of inclusion by considering the contrast between birthright acquisition of citizenship, which is generally automatic, and naturalization, which requires an application.

Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship

, local and regional polities and argue that they differ in their membership character, which I identify as birthright-based, residential and derivative respectively. My conclusion is again that these are not alternative conceptions of political community but complementary ones. Each supports the realization of specific political values (of continuity, mobility and union) and taken together local, state and regional polities form nested

in Democratic inclusion
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Tracing relatedness and diversity in the Albanian–Montenegrin borderland

‘witness’ and at times Travelling genealogies 81 even an agent of family reconnection. I decided to trace the genealogical trajectories and relations and use them as a compass for capturing regional cross-border mobility and relatedness (Carsten 2000). In particular, however, I was interested in their interrelation with local diversity patterns, understood as modes of differentiation and accommodating difference (e.g. Vertovec 2009). In this sense, the Sarapa case proved to be highly instructive. Indeed, the intra-regional comparison soon revealed a significant

in Migrating borders and moving times
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relevant relation between polities is, however, one between municipalities and the states within which they are embedded, then such a derivative link seems to me neither necessary nor justifiable and residence becomes instead the basis for claims to citizenship at the local level. Finally, if the relation is one between independent states in the international system, then it is imperative that citizenship be based on birthright and constructed as

in Democratic inclusion

challenges of citizenship and democracy in a global landscape characterized by a plurality of peoples, types of polity, multilevel governance and migration (internal and transnational). In this essay, I aim to put some pressure on the relationship between populus (i.e. the citizenry) and demos (i.e. those entitled, in one way or another, to participate in the decision-making process) in Bauböck's account. Put another way, I accept Bauböck

in Democratic inclusion

and a constituted people (Pettit 2012 : 285–190). 5 The idea of domination (more than simple subjection at a point in time) supports the proposal for multilevel citizenship – as the larger unitary polities become, the more risk of domination of minorities within those states (p. 59); maintaining or extending the devolution of power to local and regional

in Democratic inclusion

asserts that we “cannot make sense of claims to inclusion in the city of Florence, the region of Tuscany or the European Union without describing first the different nature of these polities and their relations with the Italian state” (p. 51). I am not so sure. One can be a sociological member of a locality or a region without being a sociological member of a national state. This is the logic of non-citizen voting in local elections. Although membership in

in Democratic inclusion
New polity dynamics

7 Debating the future of Europe New polity dynamics Introduction The principal purpose of this study has been to provide an overview of the important political and institutional developments in the Union and to link such developments with relevant theory discourses; the most prominent of which being the relationship between theory and reform in the evolving political constitution of the Union. As the discussion in Chapter 2 suggested from a normative standpoint, it is possible to accept that the coming into being of the TEU in 1993, assisted by further treaty

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Time and space in family migrant networks between Kosovo and western Europe

. Despite being physically on different sides of polity borders, and over great geographical distance, migrants often retain an active part in their local village space. This locality is thus re-created ‘translocally’ (Massey 1991). However, migrants may transgress a state border ‘trans-temporally’ as well. They not only construct a transborder locality but also a time-space with which to fill it. Family ties across borders, earlier life experiences and imagining and remembering traces of alternative time-spaces all allow migrants to contest the hegemonic spatial temporal

in Migrating borders and moving times