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Edited by: Stan Metcalfe and Alan Warde

There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.

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Introduction

Working memory

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David Calder

, its working memory, ‘defines and supports Introduction: working memory 5 the cultural identity of a group. It is highly selective and … built on the principle of exclusion.’4 This selection process Assmann calls canonization. The canon itself is not dusty and ossified. Assmann refers to the canon as a culture’s working memory precisely because it maintains the past as present through ‘continuous repetition and re-use.’5 Working memory refers not merely to what a culture has readily in mind and on hand, but to what a culture actively keeps in mind and on hand

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Sounding

Henry David Thoreau

David Herd

, ecstatic gospels’ and for whose ‘orphic speech’ ‘Neoplatonism and both German and French Romanticism’ afforded the best parallels.7 More than most, more than anybody perhaps – more, as Walden demonstrates, than his mentor Emerson – Thoreau knew what enthusiasm could mean. Circulating In turning to think about Thoreau and circulation I take it as read that Thoreau, in the guise of Walden at least, has circulated. He only published two books during his lifetime, A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers and Walden, the former making so slight an impression on the market

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Bitter legacies

A war of extermination, grave looting, and culture wars in the American West

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Tony Platt

, including George Hewettt, whose Yurok collection eventually ended up in the British Museum. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the trade in collectibles was led by wealthy patrons of the arts who financed a frenzy of collecting. As the market for Native artefacts boomed worldwide, entrepreneurial traders, ambitious anthropology departments, local museums, amateur archaeologists, hobbyists, and ‘pothunters’ joined the hunt.30 Most artefacts were acquired through trade, but in places such as California, where Native survivors were desperate for basic

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Janelle Joseph

their “out-migration and subsequent return [which], along with tourism, have precipitated an unprecedented degree of cultural self-awareness, canonization of tradition, and pride” (Matory, 2008 , p. 950). Around the cricket pitch, the Mavericks use a “wide ball” or a spectacularly hit “four” on a cricket trip as the impetus to recall personal and broader social histories, and deal with the pain of temporal and

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Elizabeth Vandiver and Ralph Keen

him what he thought about the propositions. Karlstadt wrote against Eck in order to avenge that injury. But Eck, unafraid, ran boldly to meet the attacker. And so the matter began with skirmishes of books; an appropriate site for the battle and place for debate was sought; finally, by agreement both parties consented to Leipzig (a town famous, certainly, for its market and its University, but much more notable for the virtue and integrity of its Prince, namely the most Illustrious Duke George of Saxony).30 On a certain day which was agreed 68 Luther’s lives upon