Editor’s Introduction
Michaël Neuman, Fernando Espada and Róisín Read

dubbed ‘humanitarian exceptionalism’, the idea that aid workers should be protected at all times and in all places by virtue of the uniqueness of their function and moral standing. In the same year, arguably the apex of the heroisation of humanitarian workers, the UN launched the #HumanitarianHero campaign on 19 August to celebrate World Humanitarian Day ( Neuman, 2017 ). MSF published a multi-author review of its experience in risk management in 2016 ( Neuman and Weissman, 2016 ). In particular, the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

our point of view, it was exactly this convergence and normative homogenisation in the inter-state system, on the one hand, and the increasing power of states that question American exceptionality and centrality using rules authored by the US itself, on the other, that began to threaten the global power of the US. This obliged the US to make an about-turn, responding in accordance with ‘Babel syndrome’. Challenged on its own terms, the US disavows its moral universalism within the inter-state system and desists from the old enlightenment project of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

blocks. Each involved the careful consideration of how spaces are sensed – how they look and feel – combined with the imperative to act in emergencies. In the words of the curator, they showed that the moral act of sheltering people should not be divorced from a consideration about where stay and how it feels to live. They all stressed the importance of looking beyond bare biological needs, structural integrity and minimum standards. A humanitarian gesture, one of them

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Pacifist feminism in Britain, 1870–1902
Author: Heloise Brown

This book explores the pervasive influence of pacifism on Victorian feminism. It provides an account of Victorian women who campaigned for peace, and of the many feminists who incorporated pacifist ideas into their writing on women and gender. The book explores feminists' ideas about the role of women within the empire, their eligibility for citizenship, and their ability to act as moral guardians in public life. It shows that such ideas made use – in varying ways – of gendered understandings of the role of force and the relevance of arbitration and other pacifist strategies. The book examines the work of a wide range of individuals and organisations, from well-known feminists such as Lydia Becker, Josephine Butler and Millicent Garrett Fawcett to lesser-known figures such as the Quaker pacifists Ellen Robinson and Priscilla Peckover.

Open Access (free)
Duncan Wilson

‘Good List’ resulted from his status as ‘a key player in the shaping of the moral debates around human fertility and bioethics’.17 The profile and authority that Warnock, Glover, Harris and others have attained demonstrates that bioethicists now play an equal and sometimes greater role than doctors and scientists in publicly discussing the ethics of issues such as assisted dying, embryo research and genetic engineering. Although the notion of moral expertise remains contested and many bioethicists refuse to acknowledge it, they are often portrayed as what the Guardian

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
Jonathan Atkin

, after all, in H.G. Wells’s famous phrase, the ‘War that Will End War’. With the coming of war, a new moral order was established. ‘The present War is a conflict which admits no truth or reconciliation, between two conceptions and ideals of life’, declared the Quarterly Review. ‘Liberty, democracy, and the moral law are ranged in battle order against physical force, militarism and the claims for universal domination.’8 Moral battle-lines were drawn, but as we have seen, not everyone rallied to the same standard. The Manchester Guardian warned that: These will be times

in A war of individuals
Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise
Duncan Wilson

ban IVF. As the British Medical Journal noted, thanks to the ‘flowering of American bioethics’ the major question here was not whether a baby conceived in vitro ‘would be a girl or a boy, but whether its presumably ­unprecedented manner of coming into being is ethical’.87 British newspapers also highlighted the differing transatlantic attitudes to IVF. When Louise Brown, the first ‘test-tube baby’, was born in Oldham, Greater Manchester, on 25 July 1978, the Guardian noted how Britain lacked the ‘moral and ethical outrage’ that characterised American debates.88

in The making of British bioethics
Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media
Andrea Stöckl and Anna Smajdor

role of science in British society and use qualitative content analysis to research the debates in selected newspapers between 1998 and 2003. 9 We searched the archives of two major newspapers, the Guardian and the Daily Mail , for debates on MMR, Andrew Wakefield and the decision-making process of the then prime minister. We defined the search terms as ‘Wakefield’ and ‘MMR’, and ‘Blair’ and ‘MMR’. We chose these two newspapers

in The politics of vaccination
Duncan Wilson

2 Ian Ramsey, theology and ‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics During the 1960s and 1970s Anglican theologians increasingly endorsed ‘trans-disciplinary’ discussion of new procedures such as IVF in societies and journals dedicated to medical ethics.1 Although theological engagement with medical ethics was by no means new, it increased from the 1960s thanks to a decline in religious belief. Figures such as Ian Ramsey, an Oxford theologian and later Bishop of Durham, endorsed greater engagement with social and moral issues to maintain the Church’s relevance in

in The making of British bioethics