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José Luís Fiori

about-turn, responding in accordance with ‘Babel syndrome’. Challenged on its own terms, the US disavows its moral universalism within the inter-state system and desists from the old enlightenment project of conversion of all the peoples of the world to Western reason and ethics. At the same time, it gives up its role as guardian of international ethics and arbiter of all the world’s conflicts. This does not mean that it stops projecting the superiority of its national values, but, acting as a nation of ‘chosen people’, it opts for the unilateral

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‘The truest form of patriotism’

Pacifist feminism in Britain, 1870–1902

Series:

Heloise Brown

This book explores the pervasive influence of pacifism on Victorian feminism. It provides an account of Victorian women who campaigned for peace, and of the many feminists who incorporated pacifist ideas into their writing on women and gender. The book explores feminists' ideas about the role of women within the empire, their eligibility for citizenship, and their ability to act as moral guardians in public life. It shows that such ideas made use – in varying ways – of gendered understandings of the role of force and the relevance of arbitration and other pacifist strategies. The book examines the work of a wide range of individuals and organisations, from well-known feminists such as Lydia Becker, Josephine Butler and Millicent Garrett Fawcett to lesser-known figures such as the Quaker pacifists Ellen Robinson and Priscilla Peckover.

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Duncan Wilson

‘Good List’ resulted from his status as ‘a key player in the shaping of the moral debates around human fertility and bioethics’.17 The profile and authority that Warnock, Glover, Harris and others have attained demonstrates that bioethicists now play an equal and sometimes greater role than doctors and scientists in publicly discussing the ethics of issues such as assisted dying, embryo research and genetic engineering. Although the notion of moral expertise remains contested and many bioethicists refuse to acknowledge it, they are often portrayed as what the Guardian

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Jonathan Atkin

, after all, in H.G. Wells’s famous phrase, the ‘War that Will End War’. With the coming of war, a new moral order was established. ‘The present War is a conflict which admits no truth or reconciliation, between two conceptions and ideals of life’, declared the Quarterly Review. ‘Liberty, democracy, and the moral law are ranged in battle order against physical force, militarism and the claims for universal domination.’8 Moral battle-lines were drawn, but as we have seen, not everyone rallied to the same standard. The Manchester Guardian warned that: These will be times

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‘Where to draw the line?’

Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise

Duncan Wilson

ban IVF. As the British Medical Journal noted, thanks to the ‘flowering of American bioethics’ the major question here was not whether a baby conceived in vitro ‘would be a girl or a boy, but whether its presumably ­unprecedented manner of coming into being is ethical’.87 British newspapers also highlighted the differing transatlantic attitudes to IVF. When Louise Brown, the first ‘test-tube baby’, was born in Oldham, Greater Manchester, on 25 July 1978, the Guardian noted how Britain lacked the ‘moral and ethical outrage’ that characterised American debates.88

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The MMR debate in the United Kingdom

Vaccine scares, statesmanship and the media

Andrea Stöckl and Anna Smajdor

role of science in British society and use qualitative content analysis to research the debates in selected newspapers between 1998 and 2003. 9 We searched the archives of two major newspapers, the Guardian and the Daily Mail , for debates on MMR, Andrew Wakefield and the decision-making process of the then prime minister. We defined the search terms as ‘Wakefield’ and ‘MMR’, and ‘Blair’ and ‘MMR’. We chose these two newspapers

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Duncan Wilson

2 Ian Ramsey, theology and ‘trans-disciplinary’ medical ethics During the 1960s and 1970s Anglican theologians increasingly endorsed ‘trans-disciplinary’ discussion of new procedures such as IVF in societies and journals dedicated to medical ethics.1 Although theological engagement with medical ethics was by no means new, it increased from the 1960s thanks to a decline in religious belief. Figures such as Ian Ramsey, an Oxford theologian and later Bishop of Durham, endorsed greater engagement with social and moral issues to maintain the Church’s relevance in

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Duncan Wilson

groups. Teaching ethics, once a matter of professional etiquette, takes place on dedicated courses and in specialised departments that emphasise law and moral philosophy. A growing body of interdisciplinary journals considers topics that were once confined to the correspondence pages of the Lancet or the British Medical Journal. And public discussion of issues such as embryo research, cloning, genetic engineering or assisted dying are now as likely to be led by a lawyer or a philosopher as a doctor or a scientist. This new approach is known as ‘bioethics’: a neologism

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Eunice Goes

politics” and communitarian ideas: time to take a stand ’, The International Scope Review , 1 ( 1 ). Toynbee , P. ( 2001 ) ‘ Blair’s community spirit needs to find its focus ’, Guardian , 28 March . Walker , D. ( 1998 ) ‘ The moral agenda ’, in Brivati and Bale , New Labour in

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When words fail

The King’s Speech as melodrama

Nicola Rehling

In his review of The King’s Speech (Tom Hooper, 2010), Guardian critic Peter Bradshaw remarks that the Oscar-winning film shows ‘some cheek at presenting an English monarch as the underdog’. 1 However, although melodrama traditionally ‘sides with the powerless’, 2 it has become a common mode through which the British monarchy is represented in contemporary British