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/15 legal manoeuvres in both the United States and European Union. Chapter 3 considers Specialised Services in both areas, and then Chapter 4 examines European law in minute detail. Note that as this book is written with Europe as the focus, US regulation is described more briefly. The development of net neutrality regulation US regulation of

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
From policy to law to regulation

This book explains the beginnings of net neutrality regulation in the United States and Europe, and some of the current debate over access to Specialised Services: fast lanes with higher Quality of Service (QoS). It examines the new European law of 2015 and the interaction between that law and interception/privacy. The book takes a deep dive into UK self- and co-regulation of net neutrality. In each of the national case studies, initial confusion at lack of clarity in net neutrality laws gave way to significant cases, particularly since 2014, which have given regulators the opportunity to clarify their legislation or regulation. The majority of such cases relate to mobile net neutrality, and in particular so-called 'zero rating' practices. The book compares results and proposes a regulatory toolkit for those jurisdictions that intend effective practical partial or complete implementation of net neutrality. It sets out a future research agenda for exploring implementation of regulation. The book outlines competition policy's purpose, referring to the exceptionally rigorous recent analysis of competition law suitability to regulate net neutrality by Maniadaki. Having analysed regulatory tools with little chance of success, it then examines what communications regulators actually do: regulating telecoms access based on the UK case study. The book considers whether zero rating poses a serious challenge to Open Internet use. It explores some of the wider international problems of regulating the newest manifestation of discrimination: zero rating. The book also considers the various means by which government can regulate net neutrality.

Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

ICRC is really the first human rights organisation ( Hopgood, 2013 : chap. 2). We can point to different emphases – the law versus medicine, justice and accountability versus crisis and need – but common to both these strategies for normative action is a commitment to the physical and mental integrity, the existential moral dignity, of all human beings whoever they are and whatever they have done. This is distinctively modern, and liberal, and still something of a heresy in many Western societies let alone beyond. It is only if one shares this

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

copayment system through which UNRWA covered 10 per cent of ‘the Secondary Hospitalization bill at public and private hospitals for Palestine refugees who are registered in the Social Safety Net program and Palestine refugees from Syria who are registered in Lebanon’. By withdrawing these programmes, hospitals and medical services may continue to run, but the costs to access these will be prohibitive for many. This is especially the case since 65 per cent of Palestinians in Lebanon (PRL) were living under the poverty line by the end of 2017, only

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

. Sabine Verheyen MEP 1 This chapter first considers the 2013 Proposal and Trilogue in 2014/15, then the 2015 Regulation’s net neutrality aspects, before finally looking at the details of BEREC’s implementation of its Guidelines. European law upheld transparency on a mandatory basis, and minimum QoS on a voluntary basis, under provisions in the 2009 electronic communications

in Network neutrality

a competition problem, and viewing it through that lens leads one to the quite erroneous conclusion that no problem is proven to exist: that ‘net neutrality is a solution in search of a problem’. 2 But competition policy is useful in helping us to understand both the limits of net neutrality as a problem, the limits of competition law’s ability to explore the problem and deliver behavioural or

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage

vital to mass or individual surveillance, and their long-term cooperation with law enforcement is part of that special Faustian bargain with the state. This book marks the shift from net neutrality policy towards legal effect in Europe, and hence more intensive engagement in national law and regulation. In this comparative analysis of law and regulation towards net neutrality

in Network neutrality
Privacy, liability and interception

replacement, the Privacy Shield, announced in February 2016. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was also confirmed in 2016. 8 Books and articles will be written about such issues in the coming months and years, and the net neutrality blog (chrismarsden.blogspot.com) will refer to them as privacy developments become clearer. Books and articles will continue to be written about various national laws

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)

beginning. Winston Churchill 2 Zero-rate friends and family; specialised-service your enemies After 20 years we have reached the point of no return: we have net neutrality law in Europe, and in many other countries. It has even been accepted as a principle of the United Nations, as I explore later in this chapter. It is

in Network neutrality

. Research into comparative net neutrality law in the Global South has recently been carried out by several NGOs and is well reported in the specialist media. 9 Odlyzko notes that the zero-rating debate exists in one Asian country, but does not explore this in depth, while Marsden discussed monthly caps before zero rating had become commonly identified. 10 Net neutrality dates to the 1990s, as does

in Network neutrality