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The Changing Faces of UNRWA

From the Global to the Local

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

impacts of operational changes both on the ‘established’ 450,000 registered Palestinian refugees who have resided in Lebanon since 1948 (primarily living in twelve official refugee camps and numerous informal gatherings in that country) and on the ‘more recently arrived’ 31,000 Palestinian refugees from Syria who have sought safety in Lebanon since 2011 from the ongoing Syrian conflict. Palestinian refugees from Syria (PRS) in Lebanon are considered by UNRWA to be a particularly vulnerable group – 90 per cent are living under the poverty line and

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When the Music Stops

Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

Stephen Hopgood

globe, ministers to millions of people every day, receives billions of dollars in income and is a major player in every crisis? More than this, it is clear that the scale of human suffering remains prodigious and that for as much good as they do, humanitarians frequently do little in terms of a net reduction in suffering and misery (think Haiti, Syria, Somalia, DRC, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, South Sudan). Much suffering – private violence, civil and gang wars, state predation, poverty, insecurity – is untouched by humanitarian intervention of any

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Knowledge, democracy and action

Community–university research partnerships in global perspectives


Edited by: Budd L. Hall, Edward T. Jackson, Rajesh Tandon, Jean-Marc Fontan and Nirmala Lall

This book is based on a three-year international comparative study on poverty reduction and sustainability strategies . It provides evidence from twenty case studies around the world on the power and potential of community and higher education based scholars and activists working together in the co-creation of transformative knowledge. Opening with a theoretical overview of knowledge, democracy and action, the book is followed by analytical chapters providing lessons learned and capacity building, and on the theory and practice of community university research partnerships. It also includes lessons on models of evaluation, approaches to measuring the impact and an agenda for future research and policy recommendations. The book overviews the concept of engaged scholarship and then moves to focus on community-university research partnerships. It is based on a global empirical study of the role of community-university research partnerships within the context of poverty alleviation, the creation of sustainable societies and, broadly speaking, the Millennium Development Goals. The book frames the contribution of community-university research partnerships within a larger knowledge democracy framework, linking this practice to other spaces of knowledge democracy. These include the open access movement, new acceptance of the methods of community-based and participatory research and the call for cognitive justice or the need for epistemologies of the Global South. It takes a particular look at the variety of structures that have been created in the various universities and civil society research organizations to facilitate and enhance research partnerships.

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From uniqueness to uniformity?

An assessment of EU development aid policies

William Brown

human well-being as a manifestation of human freedom’ and that most non-democratic states performed badly in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction (World Bank, 2000: 112–13). Donor states, on the other hand, were more overt in maintaining democratic conditions as a key element of the new political conditionality, however uneven the practice (see Baylies, 1995; Olsen, 1998). Overall, therefore, the early 1990s further broadened the extent to which aid would be conditional upon ‘internal’ actions and policies of recipient states. Alongside the existing demand

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Neil McNaughton

work may income support and the like would be lost. The result in a reduction in net net effect of all this was often that a family was earnings. actually worse off by working than by not working. They were, therefore, in a poverty trap. It was a disincentive to work and, for those who nevertheless chose to find employment, it actually increased poverty. There are essentially three ways to attack the poverty trap: 1 Raise earnings at the lower end of the wage scale. This was partly achieved by introducing the minimum wage. 2 Reduce or eliminate taxation at low

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The potential and limits of EU development cooperation policy

Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

for good governance and the rule of law (CEC, 2001). Cotonou’s new emphasis on poverty reduction and eradication (Article 1) is to be welcomed. It is difficult to believe that this has not been the goal of EU development policy thus far. Development assistance in all its forms should surely be directed at the poor wherever they might be located. The conception of poverty used by the Commission is also to be commended as it moves away from a lack of resources approach towards a more multifaceted conception that includes issues of vulnerability that might not be

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An architecture understood

Effective support structures for community– university partnerships


Edward T. Jackson, Letlotlo M. Gariba and Evren Tok

advocates of community–university research partnerships in that country. First, at the most fundamental level, the university sector in Ghana is badly underfunded by its national government. Second, government does not see value in directly including a role for the universities in its development and poverty-reduction strategies, such as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers aimed at achieving targets towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). ‘One needs to answer the question whether this is a reflection of the failure of the institutions themselves to demonstrate

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Tony Fitzpatrick

rather than information per se, but the aim is to construct an approach that resists these kind of priorities. Some expect biotechnology to supplant the petrochemical and nuclear industries as the industry of the twenty-first century (Rifkin, 1998). If so, then before we can begin to yield the benefits of this technology we must prepare to avoid the accompanying dangers. Yet what are those dangers? For welfare egalitarians, the key danger is that the biological reductionism which often seems to be driving the technology shifts attention away from social explanations of

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Gender mainstreaming

Conceptual links to institutional machineries


Kathleen Staudt

those who measure human development, from sex disaggregation to empowerment (the GDI and GEM3), these quantitative scores still leave us with gaps in understanding gender inequality in ways that are difficult to reduce to numbers. Moreover, empowerment measures should be linked to poverty reduction, given women’s over-representation below poverty lines. To count some women in economic and political decision-making positions does not necessarily connect to power relations that relegate many desperately poor women to lives stripped of entitlement and endowment.4

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Anna K. Dickson

modified approach to trade liberalisation, with greater emphasis on poverty reduction. Speaking to the World Bank development Committee in April 2000, Commissioner Nielson said that the objective was ‘globalisation with a human face’. He went on to say that ‘while there is no alternative to an open and liberal world economy, this is not an end in itself. Political action is required to harness not only the potential and oppor50 EUD3 10/28/03 2:41 PM Page 51 The unimportance of trade preferences tunities offered by the global economy, but also to limit the transition